Intensified Mission Indradhanush 4.0:
The Ministry of Health virtually launched Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 4.0.
- India is implementing the largest immunisation programme globally where it annually covers more than three crore pregnant women and 2.6 crore children through the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP).
- It will ensure that Routine Immunization (RI) services reach unvaccinated and partially vaccinated children and pregnant women.
- Children up to two years will be covered in this drive.
- While the pace of routine immunisation has slowed down due to Covid-19 pandemic, IMI 4.0 will immensely contribute in filling the gaps and make lasting gains towards universal immunisation.
- Three rounds of IMI 4.0 will be conducted in 416 districts, including 75 districts identified for Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav across 33 States/UTs.
- These districts have been identified based on vaccination coverage as per the latest National Family Health Survey-5 report, Health Management Information System (HMIS) data and burden of vaccine-preventable diseases.
Universal Immunisation Programme:
- The Immunization Programme in India was introduced in 1978 as ‘Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
- In 1985, the Programme was modified as ‘Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)’. UIP prevents mortality and morbidity in children and pregnant women against 12 vaccine-preventable diseases.
- But in the past, it was seen that the increase in immunization coverage had slowed down and it increased at the rate of 1% per year between 2009 and 2013.
- To accelerate the coverage, Mission Indradhanush was envisaged and implemented since 2015 to rapidly increase the full immunization coverage to 90%.
Mission Indradhanush (MI):
- It was launched to fully immunize more than 89 lakh children who are either unvaccinated or partially vaccinated under UIP.
- It provides vaccination against 12 Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (VPD) i.e. diphtheria, Whooping cough, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, meningitis and pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae type B infections, Japanese encephalitis (JE), rotavirus vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and measles-rubella (MR).
- However, vaccination against Japanese Encephalitis and Haemophilus influenzae type B is being provided in selected districts of the country.
- Mission Indradhansuh was also identified as one of the flagship schemes under Gram Swaraj Abhiyan and Extended Gram Swaraj Abhiyan.
Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI):
- It was launched in October 2017.
- Under IMI, greater focus was given on urban areas which were one of the gaps of Mission Indradhanush.
- It focused to improve immunisation coverage in select districts and cities to ensure full immunisation to more than 90% by December 2018 instead of 2020.
Intensified Mission Indradhanush 2.0:
- It was a nationwide immunisation drive to mark the 25 years of Pulse polio programme (2019-20).
- It had targets of full immunization coverage in 272 districts spread over 27 States.
- It aimed to achieve at least 90% pan-India immunisation coverage by 2022.
Intensified Mission Indradhanush 3.0:
- IMI 3.0 was launched in 2021.
- Focus of the IMI 3.0 was the children and pregnant women who had missed their vaccine doses during the Covid-19 pandemic.
- Beneficiaries from migration areas and hard to reach areas were targeted as they might have missed their vaccine doses during Covid-19.