Today’s Current Affairs: 22nd Nov 2023 for UPSC IAS exams, State PSC exams, SSC CGL, State SSC, RRB, Railways, Banking Exam & IBPS, etc
Table of Contents
E Prime Layer : Outermost Part Of Earth’s Core
A study by an international team of researchers revealed the formation of a new enigmatic layer – E prime layer at the outermost part of Earth’s core.
- E prime layer was believed that a material exchange between the core and mantle is small.
- But the experiments revealed that when water reaches the core-mantle boundary, it reacts with silicon in the core, forming silica.
- This latest research suggests that tectonic plates carrying surface water have transported it deep into the Earth over billions of years.
- Upon reaching the core-mantle boundary about 1,800 miles below the surface, this water initiates significant chemical changes, influencing the core’s structure.
- Scientists have observed that subducted water reacts chemically with core materials under high pressure.
- This reaction leads to the formation of a hydrogen-rich, silicon-depleted layer at the outer core, resembling a film-like structure.
- Silica crystals generated by this process ascend and blend into the mantle, impacting the overall composition.
- These modifications in the liquid metallic layer could potentially result in reduced density and altered seismic characteristics, aligning with anomalies detected by seismologists.
- This discovery enhances researchers’ comprehension of Earth’s internal mechanisms, indicating a broader and more intricate global water cycle than previously acknowledged.
Nitrogen-9 nucleus : Discovery
Scientists discovered hints of the new isotope, called nitrogen-9, by smashing beams of oxygen isotopes into beryllium atoms in the U.S. National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory.
- Nitrogen-9 nucleus is characterised by seven protons and two neutrons – which is an unusually high proton-to-neutron ratio.
- This disparity has a critical effect on the isotope’s stability, influencing its decay processes as well as overall behaviour.
- For one, the high proton content places nitrogen-9 atoms beyond the conventional stability thresholds.
- Most nitrogen comes as the isotope nitrogen-14, with seven protons and seven neutrons. But physicists say they have glimpsed a far more elusive variant with just two neutrons.
- Isotopes are atoms of a given element that vary only in the number of neutrons. This difference sets apart one isotope from another.
- Many isotopes are also unstable, especially those whose atoms have too few neutrons for the number of protons.
- Unstable isotopes are short-lived, and often decay by releasing some energy to achieve a more stable configuration.
Kadalundi Mudflat : Shrinking
The mudflat ecosystem in Kadalundi, located on the southwest coast of India, is shrinking rapidly due to natural and anthropogenic factors, with sand sedimentation covering the once-abundant inter-tidal mudflats.
- In the early 2000s, Kadalundi had approximately 8 hectares of nutrient-rich mudflats, but now it has dwindled to just about 1 hectare.
- The mudflats provide essential prey, such as polychaetes and crustaceans, attracting a diverse range of migratory birds from places like Siberia, Ladakh, Mongolia, and Scotland
- Mudflats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when tides or rivers deposit mud. They are found in sheltered areas such as bays, bayous, lagoons, and estuaries.
Javier Milei Wins Argentina Presidential Election:
The Prime Minister of India congratulated Javier Milei for winning Argentina’s presidential election and emphasized diversifying and expanding India-Argentina’s strategic partnership.
- India‐Argentina relations were elevated to the level of Strategic Partnership in February 2019.
- India is the 4th largest trading partner of Argentina, with bilateral trade touching a historic peak of USD 6.4 billion in 2022, recording a growth rate of 12% over 2021.
- Libertarian outsider Javier Milei pulled off a massive upset on Sunday with a resounding win in Argentina’s presidential election, a stinging rebuke of the traditional parties that have overseen decades of economic decline.
- The political newcomer surged from obscurity to oust the long-dominant Peronist coalition and its candidate Sergio Massa, who as Economy Minister has overseen inflation of 143 percent and record poverty levels.
- Mr. Massa conceded defeat as provision results showed Milei had won with 56 percent of the vote to his 44 percent, with almost 90 percent of votes counted.
Highest Number Of Patents : Indian Patent Office
The Indian Patent Office (IPO) has granted the highest number of 41,010 patents till November 2023.
- In 2013-14 fiscal year, 4,227 patents were granted. According to a World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) report, patent applications by Indians grew 31.6% in 2022, extending an 11-year run of growth unmatched by any other country among the top 10 filers.
- The surge in patent grants in India reflects the country’s progress in innovation, technology, and competitiveness.
- It also impacts the society, economy, and the youth by addressing challenges, creating opportunities, and nurturing talent.
- A Patent is a statutory right for an invention granted for a limited period of time to the patentee by the Government, in exchange of full disclosure of his invention for excluding others, from making, using, selling, importing the patented product or process for producing that product for those purposes without his consent.
- The patent system in India is governed by the Patents Act, 1970 as amended by the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005 and the Patents Rules, 2003.
- The Patent Rules are regularly amended in consonance with the changing environment, most recent being Patents (Amendment) Rules, 2021.
- The term of every patent granted is 20 years from the date of filing of application.
- However, for applications filed under the national phase under Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), the term of patent will be 20 years from the international filing date accorded under PCT.
- PCT is an international treaty with more than 150 Contracting States, making it possible to seek patent protection for an invention simultaneously in each of a large number of countries by filing an international patent application.
- Such an application may be filed by anyone who is a national or resident of a PCT Contracting State, and generally be filed with the national patent office of the Contracting State or at the applicant’s option, with the International Bureau of WIPO in Geneva.
- An invention is patentable subject matter if it meets the following criteria,
- It should be novel.
- It should have inventive steps or it must be non-obvious
- It should be capable of Industrial application.
- It should not attract the provisions of section 3 and 4 of the Patents Act 1970.
54th International Film Festival Of India:
The 54th International Film Festival of India (IFFI) recently commenced with a grand opening ceremony at the Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Indoor Stadium in Panaji, Goa.
- International Film Festival of India (IFFI) was founded in 1952 under the patronage of the first Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, and was organized by the Films Division, Government of India.
- The first edition of the event was held in Mumbai, which in the subsequent years moved to Calcutta, Delhi, Madras, and Trivandrum.
- IFFI was moved to Goa permanently in 2004, and since then it has become a competitive and annual event. Since then, the Government of Goa and the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting jointly conduct this festival.
- It is the only film festival in South Asia that is accredited by the International Federation of Film Producers and Associations (FIAPF).
- The IFFI aims to provide a common platform for the cinemas of the world to project the excellence of film art, contributing to the understanding and appreciation of the film cultures of different nations in the context of their social and cultural ethos, and promoting friendship and cooperation among people around the world.
- It also inspires and encourages Indian cinema to stand on par with international ones and showcase its potential.
Narmada River : New Guideline
A division bench of MP High Court recently granted time to the state government to present in the court the guidelines for urban and rural areas through which river Narmada flows in the state as regards construction in the vicinity of the river.
- Narmada River is the largest west-flowing river in peninsular India.
- The origin of the river is a tiny reservoir named Narmada Kund, which is situated on the Amarkantak Hill in the Anuppur District of East Madhya Pradesh at an elevation of 1,057 m (3,467.8 ft).
- The river flows through Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat between Vindhya and Satpura hill ranges before falling into the Gulf of Cambay in the Arabian Sea about 10 km north of Bharuch, Gujarat.
- The total length of the river from source to sea is 1312 kilometres (815 miles).
- It is one of the rivers that flow in a rift valley and acts as a divider between North India and South India.
- The river has numerous waterfalls, notably the Dhuandhar Falls, southwest of Jabalpur.
- The Narmada has several tributaries, with the most significant ones being the Tawa, Barna, Hiran, and Orsang rivers.
Vajra Prahar 2023:
A collaborative military exercise between the special forces of India and the United States, named ‘Vajra Prahar 2023,’ has commenced at Meghalaya’s Umroi Cantonment.
- This marks the 14th edition of the joint exercise, emphasizing the exchange of best practices and experiences in areas such as joint mission planning and operational tactics, according to a statement from a Defence spokesperson.
- The U.S. contingent participating in ‘Vajra Prahar 2023’ consists of personnel from the 1st Special Forces Group.
- Meanwhile, the Indian Army contingent is led by Special Forces personnel from the Eastern Command.
- Initiated in 2010, ‘Vajra Prahar’ has evolved into a recurring event, with the 13th edition conducted at the Special Forces Training School in Himachal Pradesh’s Bakloh.
Safe City Project : Uttar Pradesh
The Uttar Pradesh government has initiated the Safe City Project, a comprehensive surveillance initiative aimed at bolstering security.
- The project includes the installation of CCTV cameras at entry and exit points of 17 municipal corporations, government and non-government educational institutions, and private coaching institutes in Gautam Buddha Nagar.
- As part of the Safe City Project, the government has identified 17 municipal corporations and 2500 schools in Gautam Buddha Nagar for the installation of CCTV cameras.
- In the initial phase, 1,692 schools are already equipped with cameras, covering classrooms, corridors, and entry/exit points.
- A total of 26,568 CCTVs have been installed in various educational institutions, including government, aided, and unaided schools.
- Under the project, 5,505 cameras have been installed in 162 higher educational institutions, comprising state degree/PG colleges, aided degree/PG colleges, unaided degree/PG colleges, and state universities.