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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC IAS: 3rd June 2024

Today’s Current Affairs: 3rd June 2024 for UPSC IAS exams, State PSC exams, SSC CGL, State SSC, RRB, Railways, Banking Exam & IBPS, etc

James Webb Space Telescope : Detecting The Most Distant Known Galaxy

The James Webb Space Telescope has smashed its own record for detecting the most distant known galaxy.

  • The galaxy called JADES-GS-z14-0, is revealed as it was just 290m years after the big bang, at the dawn of the universe.
  • The telescope’s previous record holder was a galaxy seen at 325m years after the big bang, which happened nearly 14bn years ago.
  • The newly observed galaxy is much brighter than expected, suggesting that the first generation of stars were either more luminous or formed much more rapidly than conventional cosmological theories have predicted.
  • The impressive size and brightness of JADES-GS-z14-0 is likely being fueled by young and actively forming stars, rather than a supermassive black hole.
  • In JADES-GS-z14-0, Webb can see a significant amount of oxygen, which tells researchers the galaxy is already quite mature.

James Webb Space Telescope (JWST):

  • It was launched in 2021 as a joint endeavour of the USA, European and Canadian space agencies.
  • It is a large infrared telescope with an approximately 6.5 meter primary mirror.
  • It does not orbit around the Earth like the Hubble Space Telescope, it orbits the Sun 5 million kilometers away from the Earth at what is called the second Lagrange point or L2.

Two-State Solution:

India said that it was one of the first countries to recognise Palestine and has long supported the two-state solution to end the Israel-Palestine conflict.

  • Two-state solution has long been proposed as the best hope for peace in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
  • It would see an independent Palestinian state established alongside the existing one of Israel, giving both peoples their own territory.
  • In 1947, the United Nations agreed a plan partitioning Palestine into Arab and Jewish states with international rule over Jerusalem. Jewish leaders accepted the plan, which gave them 56% of the land.
  • The state of Israel was declared on May 14, 1948. A day later, five Arab states attacked.
  • The war ended with Israel controlling 77% of the territory.
  • Some 700,000 Palestinians fled or were driven from their homes, ending up in Jordan, Lebanon and Syria as well as in the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and East Jerusalem.
  • In a 1967 war, Israel captured the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, from Jordan and Gaza from Egypt, securing control of all territory from the Mediterranean to the Jordan valley.
  • The Palestinians remain stateless, with most living under Israeli occupation or as refugees in neighbouring states.

Chang’e-6 : China

China’s space agency said that China landed an uncrewed spacecraft on the far side of the moon on 2nd of June.

  • The Chang’e-6 craft successfully landed in the South Pole-Aitken Basin on the back of the moon.
  • It is the first human sampling and return mission from the far side of the moon.
  • It was launched by a Chinese Long March-5 rocket from Wenchang Space Launch Center on the southern island of Hainan before 53 days.
  • Chang’e-6 consists of an orbiter, a returner, a lander and an ascender.
  • The lander was equipped with multiple sensors, including microwave, laser and optical imaging sensors which can measure distance and speed and identify obstacles on the lunar surface.
  • The probe is scheduled to complete sampling within two days. It has adopted two methods of moon sampling, which include:
    • using a drill to collect subsurface samples
    • grabbing samples on the surface with a robotic arm
  • It has achieved a breakthrough in the design and control technology of the lunar retrograde orbit and aims to realize key technologies of intelligent and rapid sampling.

60th Meeting Of The Subsidiary Bodies:

As the world gears up for the 29th Conference of Parties (COP) to UNFCCC later this year, Delhi-based think tank Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) has called on developed countries to fulfill their financial obligations in the fight against climate change.

  • The 60th meeting of the Subsidiary Bodies (SB60), will take place in Bonn, Germany from June 3-13, 2024.
  • The mid-year climate conference, also known as the 60th meeting of the Subsidiary Bodies (SB60) will bring together countries that are signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  • National delegates and civil society representatives will make up a significant part of the around 6,000 participants expected to attend the meetings.
  • The meeting will serve as a crucial midpoint between the 28th CoP in Dubai and CoP29 in Azerbaijan and its outcomes will set the stage for the next phase of global climate negotiations.
  • It will feature the inaugural Annual Global Stocktake (GST) Dialogue, which aims to foster a sharing of effective strategies and lessons learned on how countries are incorporating the GST outcomes into their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), promoting collaborative learning and progress towards achieving the Paris Agreement’s goals.

Centre for Science and Environment (CSE):

  • It is a public interest research organisation based in New Delhi.
  • It researches and communicates the urgency of development that is sustainable and equitable.

Iris-T Missile:

According to a recent report, the Bundeswehr, Germany’s armed forces, lost an Iris-T missile, sparking serious concerns about the crucial technology being compromised.

  • Iris-T Missile is a next-generation short-range air-to-air missile.
  • The IRIS-T is a six-nation program under German lead, with Diehl BGT Defence (a German defense company) acting as industrial prime contractor.
  • The IRIS-T programme sees Germany, Greece, Norway, Italy, Spain and Sweden unite to provide access to technology and expertise. Diehl Defence is the main contractor.
  • It is rated for short-range and medium-range air defense.
  • The IRIS-T SLM is designed to neutralize threats posed by a variety of enemy aerial systems, such as aircraft, cruise missiles, drones, and helicopters operating at ranges of up to 40 km (25 miles).
  • IRIS-T is characterized by an extreme maneuverability for close-in air-to-air combat.
  • Equipped with an innovative infrared seeker, thrust-vector control, and a dogfight optimized motor, the Iris-T Missile can engage any target from point-blank up to maximum range.
  • IRIS-T can also successfully engage targets behind the launching aircraft and be used in lock-on before and after launch operations.

Paraparatrechina neela : New Ant Species

Indian researchers recently discovered a new ant species named Paraparatrechina neela from Arunachal Pradesh’s remote Siang Valley.

  • Paraparatrechina neela is a new ant species discovered from Siang Valley in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • It belongs to the rare genus Paraparatrechina and has been named Paraparatrechina neela.
  • The word “neela” signifies the colour blue in most Indian languages—a fitting tribute to the ant’s unique colour.
  • This discovery signifies the first new species of Paraparatrechina in 121 years since the description of the sole previously known species, P. aseta (Forel, 1902), in the Indian subcontinent.
  • This species has a distinct metallic blue colour that is different from any other species in its genus.

World No-Tobacco Day 2024:

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (GoI), organized an event today to observe World No Tobacco Day 2024.

  • The Member States of the World Health Organization created World No Tobacco Day in 1987.
  • In 1988, a Resolution was passed, calling for the celebration of World No Tobacco Day, every year on 31 May.
  • The annual campaign is an opportunity to raise awareness on the harmful and deadly effects of tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure and to discourage the use of tobacco in any form.
  • The theme: “Protecting Children from Tobacco Industry Interference”.
  • In India tobacco is predominantly cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, UP and Bihar. Gujarat accounts for 45 per cent of the area (0.13 M ha) and 30 percent of production (0.16 M t).
  • Productivity is also highest (1700 kg ha-1) in Gujarat followed by AP.

What Is Exit poll?

Congress refrained from participating in Lok Sabha Elections-related debates in exit polls 2024.

  • An exit poll is a post-election survey that shows how many seats a political party will likely win.
  • It is not the same as the official election results.
  • They can be released by media houses only after the voting ends for an election.
  • They are taken immediately after voters have cast their ballots.
  • The exit polls are regulated by Section 126A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
  • This law stipulates that no person shall conduct or publish exit polls via print or electronic media, or disseminate the results in any manner, during a period specified by the Election Commission of India.
  • Any person who contravenes the provisions of the Section 126A shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or with a fine or with both.

Landslides In Northeast India : Cyclone Remal

The Cyclone Remal caused landslides in the northeastern region of India causing several casualties, highlighting the need for multi-hazard disaster resilience. While early warnings for cyclones have improved, landslides still remain a challenge.

  • A landslide can be defined as the movement of a mass of rock, debris, or earth down a slope.
  • They are a type of mass wasting, which denotes any downward movement of soil and rock under the direct influence of gravity.
  • Landslide encompasses five slope movement modes: falls, topples, slides, spreads, and flows.
  • Causes:
    • Slope movement occurs when forces acting downward (mainly due to gravity) exceed the strength of the earth materials that compose the slope.
    • Landslides are caused due to three major factors: geology, morphology, and human activities.

Genetically Modified Mosquitoes:

Djibouti, a nation in East Africa, is taking a bold step in the fight against malaria by deploying genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes.

  • This pilot program, launched in May 2024, marks a significant moment in the battle against this deadly disease.
  • GM mosquitoes are bred in a lab with two genes: a self-limiting gene to prevent female offspring from surviving to adulthood, and a fluorescent marker gene for identification in the wild.
  • GM mosquitoes are engineered to reduce the population of female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which are responsible for transmitting malaria.
  • By targeting the vector population, the aim is to interrupt the transmission cycle of malaria.
  • Djibouti has witnessed a dramatic rise in malaria cases in recent years.
  • An invasive mosquito species (migrated to Africa from South Asia and the Arabian Peninsula), Anopheles stephensi, particularly adept at thriving in urban environments like Djibouti City.
  • Existing control methods like insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor spraying are becoming less effective due to mosquito resistance.
  • The released mosquitoes are all male and carry a self-limiting gene. When they mate with female A. stephensi mosquitoes, their offspring (which would be female) inherit the gene and are unable to survive to adulthood.
  • Over time, this process aims to significantly reduce the overall population of female mosquitoes, thereby interrupting malaria transmission.

India’s First 3D-Printed Rocket Launched:

Chennai-based start-up Agnikul Cosmos has launched the world’s first rocket, Agnibaan Sub Orbital Technology Demonstrator (SOrTeD), powered by a fully 3D-printed engine.

  • It aims to conduct a test flight to showcase the company’s internally developed technologies and gather important flight data.
  • This has achieved several firsts for the Indian space ecosystem i.e. launch from a private pad (Dhanush), homegrown semi-cryo engine-powered rocket launch and the world’s 1st single-piece 3D printed engine.
  • It uses liquid oxygen and kerosene as propellant.
  • Launch was supported by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Indian National Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre (IN-SPACe).
  • 3D printing is also known as additive manufacturing which uses materials such as plastics and metals to convert products envisaged on computer-aided design to real three-dimensional items.
  • It is the opposite of subtractive manufacturing which is cutting out/hollowing out a piece of metal or plastic with, for instance, a milling machine.

Maratha Queen Ahilya Bai Holkar : Birth Anniversary

On May 31, we celebrated the 300th birth anniversary of the Maratha queen Ahilya Bai Holkar — a great administrator and visionary with a spiritual inclination.

  • “The reign of Ahilyabai, of Indore in central India, lasted for thirty years.
  • This has become almost legendary as a period during which perfect order and good government prevailed and the people prospered.
  • She was a very able ruler and organizer, highly respected during her lifetime, and considered as a saint by a grateful people after her death.” – Jawaharlal Nehru (The Discovery of India/1946)


  • Rajmata Ahilyabai Holkar was the Holkar Queen of the Malwa kingdom. She is regarded as one of the most visionary female rulers of India.
  • Born on 31 May 1725, in the village of Chondi in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar (Maharashtra), Ahilya hailed from a very humble background.
  • Her father Mankoji Rao Shinde was the village head, and he taught her to read and write.
  • As a young girl, the combination of her simplicity and strength of character caught the attention of Malhar Rao Holkar, the
  • Lord of the Malwa territory. He was so impressed with the young Ahilya that in 1733 when she was barely eight years old, he got her married to his son Khanderao Holkar.
  • Twelve years after her marriage, her husband Khanderao died during the siege of the Kumher Fort.After the death of her husband, Ahilyabai was stopped by her father-in-law from committing sati. Instead, he took her under his wing and trained her in military and administrative matters.
  • Her father in law, Malhar Rao passed away in 1766, and in the following year, she lost her son, Male Rao.
  • Keeping in mind the welfare of the kingdom and her people, she petitioned the Peshwa to allow her to take over the reign of Malwa.
  • Although some of the nobles objected to this, she still had the support of the army.
  • In 1767, the Peshwa granted Ahilyabai permission to take over Malwa. She ascended the throne and became the ruler of Indore on 11 December 1767. For the next 28 years, Maharani Ahilyabai ruled over Malwa in a just, wise, and knowledgeable manner.
  • Her most notable contribution was the renovation and repair of the famous Kashi Vishwanath Temple in 1780.
  • The ‘Philosopher Queen’ as she is famously known, passed away on 13th August 1795 at the age of seventy.
  • Her legacy still lives on and the various temples, Dharamshalas, and public works undertaken by her stand as a testimony to the great warrior queen she was.

Nelson Mandela Health Promotion Award 2024:

The World Health Organization (WHO) has given the Nelson Mandela Award for Health Promotion for 2024 to the National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS) in Bengaluru.

  • NIMHANS is known as India’s top mental health center. This very important award was given at the 77th World Health Assembly in Geneva.
  • The Nelson Mandela Award for Health Promotion was created by the WHO in 2019 to recognize the important work that people, institutions, and groups around the world have done to promote health.
  • This award recognizes excellent accomplishments and new ideas that have been used to improve health standards and advocacy.

NIMHANS: A Legacy in Mental Health Excellence

  • Under the leadership of Director Pratima Murthy, NIMHANS has been praised for both its history and its innovative methods to mental health care.
  • The institute does study, teaches, and takes care of patients, mostly in the areas of neuroscience and mental health.
  • It’s known for starting innovative programs in mental health, bringing mental health care into regular medical spaces, and starting digital health interventions.

Global Organ Transplant Strategy : 77th World Health Assembly

The 77th World Health Assembly made news when it approved a draft resolution to make organ donations, including those using tissues and human cells, more available around the world.

  • This project is aware of the differences in the number of transplants that are available and wants to make it easier for people in both poor and developed countries to get one.
  • The resolution asks member states to come up with a global plan to improve organ transplants.
  • This plan will be put into action in 2026. It shows how important it is to follow WHO’s Guiding Principles even more, especially when it comes to increasing the number of dead donations so that they can be used for therapy in their fullest capacity.
  • To get more people to donate organs, the idea of making World Donor Day official was backed.
  • The target of the draft is narrowed even more by calling for donations after both neurological and, if necessary, circulatory death.
  • This dual approach method aims to get the most out of the organs that are available while still following medical and moral standards.
  • Countries are being pushed to make organ transplantation a normal part of their national healthcare systems, with donations from the dead being a normal part of this.
  • In addition, the resolution stands against the abuse of live donors by calling for proper protection and follow-up steps.