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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC IAS: 5th June 2024

Today’s Current Affairs: 5th June 2024 for UPSC IAS exams, State PSC exams, SSC CGL, State SSC, RRB, Railways, Banking Exam & IBPS, etc

European Parliament Elections:

The European Parliament elections this week will determine representatives who negotiate EU laws with member state governments, ensuring citizens’ representation in the EU.

  • European Parliament is the directly elected legislative body of the European Union (EU).
  • It is one of the EU’s main institutions and represents the citizens of the EU member states.
  • The Parliament is headquartered in Strasbourg, France, but its work is conducted in three locations: Strasbourg, Brussels (Belgium), and Luxembourg.
  • Primary Functions:
    • Negotiating EU laws with member state governments.
    • Approving the EU budget.
    • Voting on international agreements and enlargements.
    • Approving or rejecting the appointment of the European Commission president and commissioners.
    • Composition, Term and Leadership:
  • The EP comprises 720 members of the European Parliament (MEPs) who are elected by EU citizens every five years.
  • MEPs then elect their president for a term of two and a half years.
  • All candidates must be EU citizens.
  • Voters may choose from individual candidates or delegates from political parties.
  • Once elected, politicians from each nation join the European groups based on their political orientations.
  • Elected MEPs cannot hold functions in national governments or other political bodies such as the EU Commission, the Court of Justice, or the Court of Auditors.

Direct Seeded Rice:

ICAR has commercialised herbicide-tolerant (Ht) basmati rice varieties that can control weeds

  • Direct Seeded Rice (DSR) is a modern rice cultivation technique where rice seeds are directly sown into the field, replacing the traditional method of transplanting seedlings from a nursery.
  • It is an efficient, and sustainable method of rice cultivation that offers significant benefits for farmers, the environment, and the economy.
  • ICAR commercialised non-genetically modified (non-GM) Ht basmati rice. These varieties allow direct application of the herbicide Imazethapyr due to a mutated ALS gene.
  • Research indicates that hand weeding at specific intervals (20 and 40 days after sowing) in DSR is more effective and yield-enhancing than the use of Imazethapyr.
  • ICAR’s research favours eco-friendly hand weeding over repeated herbicide applications for weed control and higher seed yield.
  • Herbicide-resistant weeds may evolve, threatening rice production and food security.

‘Phenome India’ Project:

CSIR concluded the first phase of its longitudinal health monitoring project, Phenome India, and organised a special event, Phenome India Unboxing 1.0.

  • Phenome India-CSIR Health Cohort Knowledgebase (PI-CheCK) is an initiative by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), launched on 7th December 2023.
  • The project aims to develop India-specific risk prediction models for cardio-metabolic diseases including diabetes, liver diseases, and cardiac diseases.
  • This is the first-ever pan-India longitudinal health monitoring study focused on cardio-metabolic diseases.
  • Nearly 10,000 participants including CSIR employees, pensioners, and their spouses from across 17 states and 24 cities have contributed to the study.
  • The collected data includes clinical questionnaires, lifestyle and dietary habits, anthropometric measurements, imaging/scanning data, and extensive biochemical and molecular data.
  • The study is crucial for understanding the risk and incidence of cardio-metabolic disorders in the Indian population which may differ from those in Western populations due to ethnic diversity and varied lifestyle patterns.
  • Through this project, CSIR is promoting Predictive, Personalised, Participatory, and Preventive (P4) healthcare, tailored specifically to the Indian phenotypic and genetic profiles.

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR):

  • Established: In September 1942.
  • Headquarters: Located in New Delhi.
  • Funding: CSIR is funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology.
  • Autonomous body: It operates as an autonomous body under the Societies Registration Act, of 1860.
  • CSIR is primarily focused on scientific research and development in various fields such as aerospace, biology, chemistry, earth sciences, engineering, and medical sciences.

United Nations Global Supply Chain Forum:

The inaugural United Nations Global Supply Chain Forum, organized by UN Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the Government of Barbados, concluded successfully recently.

  • UN Global Supply Chain Forum was the inaugural edition of the forum, which was held from May 21 to 24, 2024, in Barbados.
  • It was hosted by UN Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in collaboration with the Government of Barbados.
  • Over 1,000 participants from around the world convened to tackle the pressing issues of global disruptions, geopolitical tensions, climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic and their impact on global trade.
  • It gathered key figures, including trade and transport Ministers from several small island developing states (SIDS).
  • Representatives from various UN agencies, major ports like the Port of Seattle, and industry leaders in shipping and logistics were also present.
  • The forum underscored the complexities and opportunities in decarbonizing global shipping, with a particular focus on developing countries rich in renewable energy resources.
  • Efforts to incentivize low- or zero-carbon fuels, establish safety frameworks for new fuels, and enhance port readiness for handling various fuels were identified as critical steps in driving sustainable freight transport and logistics.
  • One of the major outcomes of the forum was the launch of the “Manifesto for Intermodal, Low-Carbon, Efficient and Resilient Freight Transport and Logistics.”.
  • This manifesto calls for a significant transformation in freight transport to achieve global climate targets and improve socio-economic resilience, emphasizing the transition to zero-emission fuels, optimized logistics, and sustainable value chains.
  • Digital technologies were highlighted as key to enhancing global supply chain resilience.
  • Ministers from SIDS advocated for international financial support and investment in green and sustainable technologies to enhance energy efficiency and combat marine pollution.
  • A significant achievement of the forum was the launch of the UN Trade and Development Trade-and-Transport Dataset, developed in collaboration with the World Bank.
  • This comprehensive repository provides global data on over 100 commodities and various transport modes, offering a holistic view of trade and transport costs.

International Air Transport Association : India To Host

India will host the world’s most premier aviation event, the annual general meeting (AGM) of the International Air Transport Association (IATA), next year, after a gap of 42 years.

  • International Air Transport Association (IATA) is an international trade association for the world’s airlines, established in 1945 in Havana, Cuba, with 57 founding members.
  • Its mission is “to represent, lead and serve the airline industry.”
  • IATA advocates for the interests of airlines on the world stage in addition to creating industry standards that
  • simplify processes, increase safety, enhance passenger convenience, reduce costs, improve efficiency and help achieve sustainability goals.
  • It currently represents some 330 airlines, comprising over 80% of global air traffic.
  • IATA members include the world’s leading passenger and cargo airlines.
  • Headquarters: Montreal, Canada.
  • IATA supports many areas of aviation activity and helps formulate industry policy on critical aviation issues, including environmental concerns.
  • The association advocates on behalf of airlines worldwide, challenging arbitrary laws and charges, holding regulators and governments accountable and striving for responsible regulation.
  • Its goal is to help airlines reduce costs and improve efficiency by simplifying operations and boosting passenger convenience.
  • It assists airlines in operating under clearly defined norms in a safe, secure, efficient, and cost-effective manner.
  • Professional assistance is offered to all industry stakeholders in the form of a diverse offering of goods and professional services.

UN Assistance Mission For Iraq (UNAMI):

The UN Security Council voted to end the UN mission in Iraq (UNAMI) that was set up after the 2003 US-led invasion.

  • UNAMI’s job was to help Iraq rebuild after the war and restore a government.
  • The resolution doesn’t mention the geographical features of Iraq.
  • UNAMI will cease operations by December 31, 2025.
  • Iraq wants to manage its own security and stability.
  • The resolution supports Iraq’s reform efforts and helps with remaining issues from the Saddam Hussein era.
  • Both the US and Russia agree Iraq is ready for self-reliance.

Unified India Organic logo : FSSAI And APEDA

FSSAI and APEDA have developed a new “Unified India Organic” logo to replace the existing India Organic and Jaivik Bharat logos.

  • This move aims to bring uniformity in the implementation of organic regulations by NPOP and FSSAI.
  • The new logo is expected to come into force in the near future, and certification bodies will be given a 3-month transition period for implementation.
  • It will distinguish organic products from non-organic communicating adherence to the National Standards for Organic Production.
  • Currently, the India Organic logo is used on organic products complying with the National Programme for Organic Products (NPOP), while Jaivik Bharat is used on organic products certified by FSSAI.
  • Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) (under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare) regulates the manufacture, distribution, sale or import of Organic products through the Food Safety and Standards (Organic Foods) Regulations, 2017 (under FSSA 2006).

Women In Leadership In Corporate India : Report

A recent report titled “Women in Leadership in Corporate India” by networking platform has shown a persistent underrepresentation of women in leadership positions across Indian corporates.

  • The percentage has remained stagnant below 30% for a considerable period.

Findings of the Report:

  • Women representation across the workforce and in senior leadership positions is below 30% all the time, and is on a declining trend post-pandemic.
  • This can be attributed to the slowdown in fresh hires of women for leadership roles.

Women in Leadership Lowest, Moderate and Highest in Sectors:.

  • Lowest Representation: Construction, Oil, Gas, and Mining, and Utilities (11%), Wholesale and Manufacturing(12%), and Accommodation and Food Services (15%).
  • Slightly Better (12%): Wholesale, Manufacturing
  • Moderate Representation: Technology, Information & Media, Financial Services (19%)
  • Highest Representation: Education (30%) and Government Administration (29%)
  • Breaking the Law: Reports show that laws such as the Companies Act, 2013, which mandates women directors on company boards, are not being followed strictly.
  • Between April 2018 and December 2023, 507 companies were fined for flouting this norm. Of them, 90% were listed companies.

Maldives Bans Entry To Israeli Passport Holders:

Because of rising tensions and popular displeasure over recent events in Gaza, the Maldives has banned visitors with Israeli passports.

  • Under pressure from the people and the government, President Dr. Mohamed Muizzu made the choice his Cabinet told him to.
  • The ban is in line with replies around the world and has caused reactions around the world.
  • The Incident Prompting the Ban: President Muizzu criticized the Israeli airstrike that killed 45 people in a tent camp in Rafah that had been marked as a “safe zone.” A lot of people in the Maldives were angry about this attack.
  • Following the Rafah incident, President Muizzu announced a ban on Israeli passport holders, alongside initiating a national fundraising campaign for Palestinians and organizing a solidarity rally named “Maldivians in Solidarity with Palestine”.
  • The Maldivian Cabinet’s job is to change the laws to make the ban official and set up a panel to monitor the process. President Muizzu said that these steps show that the government agrees with calls for following international law.
  • After the ban, the Israeli Foreign Ministry told its people not to go to the Maldives and told those already there to think about leaving because there isn’t much help available right now.
  • This advisory talks about what the Maldives’ choice means for world politics.
  • Maldives had lifted a similar ban on Israeli tourists in the early 1990s, and in 2010, steps were taken to restore formal ties.
  • There were problems with these attempts after President Mohamed Nasheed was removed from office in 2012.

Gudleppa Hallikeri Award 2024:

Poet and playwright Siddhalinga Pattanashetti has been announced as the recipient of the Gudleppa Hallikeri Award for 2024.

  • This declaration was made by the Gudleppa Hallikeri Memorial Foundation based in Hosaritti, Haveri District.
  • The award, set to be presented on June 6 at a ceremonial event, includes a monetary prize of ₹25,000 and a memento.
  • Siddhalinga Pattanashetti becomes the 19th distinguished individual to receive this honour, as stated by Veeranna Chekki, trustee of the Gudleppa Hallikeri Memorial Foundation.
  • People who have made important contributions to literature, society, or social service are recognized with the Gudleppa Hallikeri Award.
  • It was named for a famous freedom fighter named Gudleppa Hallikeri who believed in the same things that Mahatma Gandhi did.

Boeing, NASA Set Starliner Launch:

The launch was supposed to happen from Florida’s Kennedy Space Center, but a problem with the computer system on the ground stopped the process.

  • The Starliner was supposed to take off on June 01, but a computer on the ground sent an automated abort order that stopped the countdown.
  • NASA quickly found that the problem was caused by a problem with a chassis’s ground power source. This frame gives power to some computer cards that are needed to run different parts of the system.
  • Boeing’s first trip with people on board to the International Space Station (ISS) on the CST-200 Starliner makes the mission very important.
  • This is a big step for Boeing toward getting a bigger share of NASA’s space research projects.
  • Right now, SpaceX is in charge of this area.
  • Starliner’s successful docking to the ISS, which is due to happen about 24 hours after launch, will be a key moment in showing that it can be used for manned space missions.