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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC IAS: 4th June 2024

Today’s Current Affairs: 4th June 2024 for UPSC IAS exams, State PSC exams, SSC CGL, State SSC, RRB, Railways, Banking Exam & IBPS, etc

Claudia Sheinbaum Elected Mexico’s First Woman President:

Claudia Sheinbaum has been named Mexico’s first female president. According to the National Electoral Institute, Sheinbaum won between 58 and 60% of the votes, which is more than 30 percentage points more than her closest rival, Xochitl Galvez.

  • Claudia Sheinbaum made history as the first Jewish president of a mostly Catholic country and the first woman to become president of Mexico.
  • She is known for being a climate expert and for being the mayor of Mexico City before she became president.
  • This election was important because it was the biggest in the history of Mexico, a country with about 130 million people.
  • There were more than 20,000 open political roles, including all seats in both houses of parliament and many regional and local positions.
  • There was violence, including the death of a town council candidate and kidnapping at a voting station, but a lot of people went to the polls and then celebrated, which showed that people were very involved in the democratic process.

Red List Of Mangrove Ecosystems:

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has issued a “Red List of Mangrove Ecosystems” cautioning that half of the world’s mangrove ecosystems are at risk of collapsing.

  • This marks the first comprehensive global assessment of mangroves by IUCN.
  • The world’s mangrove ecosystems cover about 150 thousand km2 along mainly tropical, sub-tropical and some warm temperate coasts of the world. About 15% of the world’s coastlines are covered by mangroves.
  • Mangrove ecosystems are important for biodiversity conservation, provision of essential goods and services to local communities, and reducing the impact of climate change. For this reason, understanding risk of ecosystem collapse has serious socioeconomic implications.

Key Findings of the Report:

  • It classified the world’s mangrove ecosystems into 36 different regions called provinces and assessed the threats and risk of collapse in each region.
  • Over 50% of the world’s mangrove ecosystems are at risk of collapse (classified as either vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered), with nearly 1 in 5 facing severe risk.
  • One-third of the world’s mangrove ecosystem provinces will be severely affected by sea-level rise, with 25% of the global mangrove area predicted to be submerged in the next 50 years.
  • The mangrove ecosystem in South India shared with Sri Lanka and Maldives, is categorized as “critically endangered”.
  • In contrast, mangrove ecosystems in the Bay of Bengal region (shared with Bangladesh) and the western coast (shared with Pakistan) are classified as “least concerned”.
  • A study found that globally, climate change is the major threat to mangrove ecosystems, affecting 33% of mangroves.
  • It is followed by deforestation, development, pollution, and dam construction.
  • Increased frequency and intensity of cyclones, typhoons, hurricanes, and tropical storms are impacting mangroves on certain coastlines.
  • Coasts along the Northwest Atlantic, North Indian Ocean, Red Sea, South China Sea, and Gulf of Aden are predicted to be significantly impacted. Without increased conservation, about 7,065 sq km (5%) more mangroves could be lost, and 23,672 sq km (16%) will be submerged by 2050.

Malfunctioning Of The Sensor : India Meteorological Department

Delhi’s Mungeshpur weather station recorded a maximum temperature of 52.9 degrees Celsius on May 29, it was on account of “malfunctioning of the sensor,” the India Meteorological Department (IMD) has said.

  • The maximum temperature of 52.9 degrees at Mungeshpur was an all-time high for any location in India and this had prompted the IMD to verify the recording at the station.
  • IMD is the principal agency responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting, and seismology.
  • It functions under Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) with its headquarter at Mausam Bhawan, Lodhi Road, New Delhi.
  • IMD is also one of the six Regional Specialised Meteorological Centres of the World Meteorological Organisation.
  • It has the responsibility for forecasting, naming and distribution of warnings for tropical cyclones in the Northern Indian Ocean region, including the Malacca Straits, the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf.


  • Established in 1875, IMD is the National Meteorological Service of the country.
  • IMD is headquartered in Delhi and operates hundreds of observation stations across India and Antarctica.
  • It deals with all matters relating to meteorology, seismology, and associated subjects.
  • IMD provides a variety of services such as rainfall information, monsoon information, cyclone information, agromet advisory services, climate services, urban meteorological services, aviation services, climate hazard & vulnerability atlas, geospatial services, and forecasts.

2024 Shangri-La Dialogue:

The 2024 Shangri-La Dialogue took place in Singapore from 31 May to 2 June.

Some of the highlights from the 2024 dialogue include:

  • The Philippines made a statement regarding the South China Sea conflict, suggesting that China and the Philippines would be ‘crossing the Rubicon’ should a Filipino citizen be killed by Beijing’s ongoing actions in the South China Sea4.
  • Canada announced the deployment of a Harry DeWolf-class Arctic patrol vessel to the Indo-Pacific as part of the country’s effort to deepen its naval presence.
  • The Shangri-La Dialogue has become one of the most important independent forums for the exchange of views by international security policy decision-makers.
  • It provides a unique platform for debate among government ministers and senior officials, as well as business leaders and security experts, on Asia’s developing security challenges.

The Shangri-La Dialogue :

  • It is Asia’s premier defence summit.
  • It’s a unique meeting where ministers debate the region’s most pressing security challenges, engage in important bilateral talks and come up with fresh approaches together.
  • The Shangri-La Dialogue (SLD) is an annual “Track One” inter-governmental security conference held in Singapore.
  • It’s organized by the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), an independent think tank.
  • The forum is named after the Shangri-La Hotel in Singapore, where it has been held since 2002.
  • The dialogue is attended by defense ministers, permanent heads of ministries, and military chiefs of mostly Asia-Pacific states.
  • It serves to cultivate a sense of community among the most important policymakers in the defense and security community in the region.
  • Besides government delegations, the summit is also attended by legislators, academic experts, distinguished journalists, and business delegates.
  • The 2024 Shangri-La Dialogue took place in Singapore from 31 May to 2 June. The Keynote Address was delivered by Ferdinand R. Marcos Jr., President of the Philippines.


Techo Funan Canal:

Cambodia will start constructing the Chinese-backed Techo Funan Canal.

  • The 180-km canal aims to connect the Mekong River basin to the Cambodian coast.
  • Despite tensions with Vietnam and concerns about potential military use by China, Cambodia asserts the canal will reduce reliance on Vietnamese ports, lower transportation costs, and benefit millions of people through improved irrigation.
  • Cambodia is a Southeast Asian country bordering Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam, with a coastline along the Gulf of Thailand.
  • A 1997 coup established Hun Sen and the Cambodian People’s Party’s dominance, making Cambodia a de facto one-party state despite being constitutionally multi-party.
  • Designated a least developed country by the UN, Cambodia is a member of ASEAN, WTO, and other international organizations.
  • Its economy is primarily agricultural, with growing sectors in textiles, construction, garments, and tourism, making it vulnerable to climate change.

What Is Living Will?

Justice M.S. Sonak, of the Bombay High Court’s Goa Bench, became the first person in Goa to register a “living will”—an advance medical directive specifying actions for when he cannot make decisions

  • A living will is a written document where a person outlines their medical treatment preferences in advance, to be followed if they become incapacitated or unable to communicate.
  • It’s a voluntary decision.
  • The Supreme Court, in the Common Cause vs. Union of India & Anr. (2018) case, ruled that a person in a persistent vegetative state can opt for passive euthanasia, such as withdrawing life support.
  • A living will allows individuals to refuse medical treatment in the event of a terminal illness.
  • Goa is the first state to implement these directives formally.
  • The living will must be drafted in the presence of two witnesses, certified by a gazetted officer or notary, and sent to the District Collector for safekeeping.

Stromatolites: Discovered

Researchers have discovered living stromatolites on Sheybarah Island in the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

  • Stromatolites are layered rock formations created by microbial communities, representing some of the earliest evidence of life on Earth.
  • These structures are formed as layers of sediment accumulated over time, trapping and binding microorganisms like cyanobacteria.
  • As these microorganisms grow and photosynthesize, they produce layers of carbonate minerals, gradually building up the stromatolite structure.
  • Despite their simple appearance, stromatolites played a crucial role in shaping Earth’s early environment and are considered significant in the study of early life and evolutionary history.

Carnian Pluvial Episode:

The Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE) was a period of extended and intense rainfall that occurred in the late Triassic Period (approx. 230 million years ago).

  • It had a significant impact on the evolution of both terrestrial and marine life.
  • Researchers believe that this prolonged rainfall was the result of global climate change caused by extensive volcanic activity in the Wrangellia Province (located in western coast of North America).
  • During the late Triassic period, all of the Earth’s landmasses were joined together to form one large supercontinent known as Pangaea.
  • It caused mass extinction of marine life and terrestrial species, wiping out about one-third of all species and leading to a decrease in biodiversity.
  • However, it also created an opportunity for new and different marine and terrestrial species to evolve, including the rise of dinosaurs .
  • The CPE is believed to have set the stage for the Mesozoic Era, known as the age of the dinosaurs, in which dinosaurs emerged and flourished, dominating terrestrial ecosystems for the next 150 million years.

Exercise Red Flag:

Eight Indian Rafale fighter jets, accompanied by two IL-78 air-to-air refuellers and three C-17 Globemaster-III strategic airlift aircraft, are poised to participate in the prestigious multi-national ‘Red Flag’ exercise in Alaska, USA.

  • The two-week advanced aerial combat training exercise, Exercise Red Flag, aims to integrate aircrew in a multinational environment, with over 100 aircraft from four nations and around 3,100 personnel participating from 1st -14th June 2024.
  • The IAF participated twice in the Red Flag exercise, known as the most realistic air combat training, where fighter pilots refine skills against numerous targets, authentic threats, and adversary forces.

Spot Bellied Eagle Owl:

Pench Tiger Reserve (PTR), Maharashtra, recently reported the first photographic record of a spot-bellied eagle owl.

  • Spot Bellied Eagle Owl is also known as the forest eagle-owl, is a large bird of prey with a formidable appearance.
  • Scientific Name: Ketupa nipalensis
  • It can be found in a variety of habitats, including tropical and subtropical forests, woodlands and savannas.
  • It is commonly found in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and parts of Southeast Asia.
  • It is a large species of owl. It measures about 50 to 65 cm in length and weighs 1500 to 1700 grams.
  • Its wingspan can reach up to 1.7 meters.
  • The most distinguishing feature is its striking colouration.
  • The upperparts of its body are a rich chocolate brown, speckled with white spots.
  • The feathers on its wings and tail are barred with alternating shades of brown and white, creating a stunning pattern that helps it blend in with its surroundings.
  • The underside of the owl is where it gets its name; its belly and breast are a light cream colour, covered in bold black spots.
  • It is primarily nocturnal.
  • It is an apex predator, feeding on a variety of prey, including rodents, small mammals, reptiles, and insects.
  • It is a solitary bird that is territorial and maintains a home range.
  • Conservation Status:
    • IUCN Status: Least Concern
    • Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule IV
    • CITES: Appendix II.

Hunga Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai (HTHH) Volcano:

A new study published recently shows that the January 15, 2022, eruption of the Hunga Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai Volcano could cause unusual weather for the rest of the decade.

  • Hunga Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai (HTHH) is a submarine stratovolcano in the Tongan archipelago in the southern Pacific Ocean.
  • The HTHH volcano includes the small islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha’apai, along with shallow reefs along the caldera rim of a much larger submarine edifice in the western South Pacific Ocean, west of the main inhabited islands in the Kingdom of Tonga.
  • It is located about 30 km south of the submarine volcano of Fonuafoʻou and 65 km north of Tongatapu, the country’s main island.
  • The volcano is part of the highly active Tonga–Kermadec Islands volcanic arc, a subduction zone extending from New Zealand north-northeast to Fiji.
  • The Tonga-Kermadec arc was formed as a result of the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Indo-Australian Plate.
  • It has erupted regularly over the past few decades.


  • It is a tall, steep and cone-shapedtype of volcano.
  • Unlike flat shield volcanoes, they have higher peaks.
  • They are typically found above subduction zones, and they are often part of large volcanically active regions, such as the Ring of Fire that frames much of the Pacific Ocean.
  • Stratovolcanoes comprise the largest percentage(~60%) of the Earth’s individual volcanoes and most are characterized by eruptions of andesite and dacite, lavas that are cooler and more viscous than basalt.

Sunkoshi River : River Cleanup Campaign

A river cleanup campaign that removed 24,575 kg of waste from the Sunkoshi River banks and waste hotspots was recently completed under the PLEASE (Plastic Free Rivers and Seas of South Asia) program.

  • Sunkoshi River also known as the ‘river of gold’, is a river in Nepal that is part of the Koshi or Saptakoshi River system formed by the seven (sapta) rivers joining in east-central Nepal.
  • River Sunkoshi’s water source is located in the Zhangzangbo Glacier in Tibet, which merges with River Saptkoshi, ultimately joining the Ganga in the Katihar district of Bihar in India, before finally draining into the ocean at the Bay of Bengal in Bangladesh.
  • It is one of the longest and most popular rivers for rafting in Nepal and is known for its challenging rapids.
  • It forms the watershed for most of eastern Nepal.

Koshi River:

  • It is a transboundary river which flows through China, Nepal, and India.
  • It is a prominent tributary of the Ganges
  • Originating from the Tibetan Plateau, it crosses the Himalayas and flows through the Mahabharat range and Siwalik hills, reaching the plains of eastern Nepal and finally meeting the Ganges in Bihar, India.
  • The Kosi drains an area of 74,500, of which only 11,070 lie within Indian Territory.
  • The Koshi River system drains about 45% of Nepal.
  • The Kosi River valley is bounded by steep margins that disconnect it from the Yarlung Zangbo River to the north, the Mahananda River to the east, the Gandaki to the west, and the Ganga to the south.

Migratory Diadromous Fishes:

A recent study has raised concerns about the effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in safeguarding the habitats of rare migratory fish species.

  • The study found that a significant portion of these protected areas do not align with the core habitats of the target species, raising questions about the efficacy of current conservation efforts.
  • The study examined 11 rare and data-poor diadromous fish species. These species migrate between saltwater and freshwater environments.
  • The researchers found that only 55% of the modelled core habitats for these species overlapped with the designated MPAs.
  • And, of these protected areas, only 50% had measures in place for the protection of the fish.
  • Less than 30% of endangered species, such as the Mediterranean twaite shad, had their core habitats within the MPAs.
  • Species like European eel and European smelt, which had nearly 70% of their core habitats within MPAs.

Diadromous fishes:

  • These are a group of fish that migrate between freshwater and saltwater environments throughout their lives.
  • This unique life cycle allows them to take advantage of the different resources available in each habitat.

Lost Nile Branch Key To Pyramid Construction:

A study discovered an ancient Nile river branch that helped transport workers and materials to Egypt’s pyramids, now buried under modern landscapes.

  • Researchers employed technologies including satellite imagery, high-resolution digital elevation data, and historical maps to trace the path of the now-vanished Ahramat Branch of Nile River.

Key Highlights of the Study:

  • The revelation of the Ahramat Branch, a previously unknown Nile channel from Lisht (village) to Giza (city), illuminates its crucial role in transporting workers and materials for pyramid construction, offering insight into their geographic and logistical considerations.
  • The study shows that natural events such as climate change, tectonic shifts, and human activities, along with environmental factors like desertification and changes in rainfall, have altered the Nile’s landscape, and branches over time, impacting the region’s ecology and water systems.t.
  • The pyramids of Egypt are massive, ancient stone structures built as tombs for pharaohs (ancient Egyptian rulers) and important figures during the Old Kingdom (roughly 2700–2200 BCE) and Middle Kingdom periods (2050–1650 BCE).


Several argue that inequality harms democratic processes. Some inequality, others argue, is actually beneficial, since it acts as an incentive to entrepreneurs to start businesses.

  • Greedflation refers to a scenario where inflation in an economy is driven by corporate greed to make a profit rather than an increase in the cost of production, demand, or wages.
  • Greedflation:
    • Unlike typical inflation scenarios where price increases result from higher input costs or increased demand, greedflation occurs when corporations exploit existing inflation by raising prices far beyond their actual input cost increases.
    • This practice maximizes profit margins but also further fuels inflation, creating a cycle that exacerbates economic inequality.
  • Inflation is the rate at which the general price level of goods and services rises in an economy. This can occur due to various factors, including:
    • Cost-push inflation: Prices rise because input costs have increased. For example, a 10% overnight increase in crude oil prices due to supply disruption can lead to higher energy costs and thus higher overall prices.
    • Demand-pull inflation: Prices rise because there is excess demand. For instance, if the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) cuts interest rates sharply, making loans more affordable, there could be a surge in demand for housing, leading to higher home prices.
    • Several internal and external factors can also contribute to inflation, such as supply-chain disruptions from international conflicts like the Russia-Ukraine war or crude oil price hikes by OPEC+.
  • To combat inflation, central banks often raise interest rates to reduce overall demand in the economy.

KAZA Summit 2024:

At the KAZA Summit 2024, leaders of the Kavango-Zambezi Trans-Frontier Conservation Area (KAZA-TFCA) decided to oppose the ivory trade ban at the CoP 20 of CITES.

  • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between 184 governments to ensure that international trade in wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species.
  • The convention entered into force in 1975. India has been a CITES Party since 1976.
  • All import, export and re-export of species covered under CITES must be authorized through a permit system.
  • Appendix of CITES:
    • Appendix I: Prohibits commercial trade of critically endangered species.
    • Appendix II: Regulates trade to prevent over-exploitation.
    • Appendix III: Protects species under national laws.
  • Every two years, the Conference of the Parties (CoP), the supreme decision-making body of CITES, applies a set of biological and trade criteria to evaluate proposals from parties to decide if a species should be in Appendix I or II.

Ivory Trade:

  • The ivory trade is the commercial trade in elephant ivory tusks and other ivory products.
  • At least 20,000 African elephants are illegally killed for their tusks each year.
  • The ivory trade threatens elephant survival, harms ecosystems, endangers local communities, and undermines security.
  • The ivory trade has traditionally involved smuggling whole or partial elephant tusks from Africa to Asia, where they would be processed and carved into ivory products.
  • The demand for ivory has been fueled primarily by a growing middle class in China, where ivory carving is a longstanding tradition.

Postal Ballots In Elections:

The opposition urged the Election Commission to prioritise postal ballot counting before finalising EVM counting, citing concerns over the 2019 guideline change.

  • Postal Ballot enables eligible voters to submit their votes via mail rather than personally visiting a polling place.
  • This method provides a convenient option for individuals who are unable to participate in person due to various reasons.

Eligibility criteria to vote using postal ballots:

  • Service voters including members of the armed forces, paramilitary forces and government employees assigned to election duties away from their home
  • Electors on election duty including government officials and polling staff working at polling stations outside their home areas.
  • Electors under preventive detention orders during the election period can also avail themselves of this option.
    Individuals engaged in essential services on polling day like essential workers, including authorized media personnel and those in railways and healthcare, can vote via postal ballots in Lok Sabha and four state Assembly elections.
  • Absentee voters: Those who are unable to vote in person due to work commitments, illness, or disability.
  • The amendment in October 2019 to the Conduct of Election Rules, 1961, lowered the eligible age for senior citizens from 85 to 80 and permitted Persons with Disabilities (PwDs) to use postal ballots in the 2020 Delhi Assembly elections.

Ikat Design:

Following NABARD’s withdrawal, Ikat weavers aim to assume control, manage operations and grow the business.

  • Ikat design originates from the Indonesian/Malay word ‘mengikat’, meaning to bind.
  • It features a resist dyeing process where threads are dyed before weaving.
  • The fabrics exhibit unique ‘blurred’ effects due to slight misalignments of threads.
  • Ancient references to ikat include the Buddhist ‘Lalitavistara Sutra’ and the Ajanta caves murals.
  • These references mention ‘Vichitra Patolaka’, associated with the double ikat or patola of Gujarat.
  • Types of Ikat And GI tag:
    • Single Ikat: Dyeing involves either the warp or the weft threads, simpler and quicker to produce.
    • Double Ikat: Both warp and weft threads are intricately resist-dyed for precise alignment, known for their complexity.
    • Patan’s Patola from Gujarat is known for its double ikat and received a GI tag in 2013.
    • Rajkot Patola, a simpler single ikat variant from Gujarat, also received a GI tag in 2013.
    • Odisha’s Bandha specialises in single ikat with GI-tagged styles like Sambalpuri Ikat (2010) and Bomkai (2009).
    • Telangana’s Telia Rumal is famous for its oil-treated threads that enhance colour depth and received a GI tag in 2020 and Pochampally Ikat is known for its geometric patterns and received a GI tag in 2005.

Bank Clinic Launched : All India Bank Employees’ Association

The All India Bank Employees’ Association (AIBEA) has launched the “Bank Clinic” initiative to assist bank customers with grievance redressal.

  • Bank Clinic is an initiative by the All India Bank Employees’ Association (AIBEA), aims to assist bank customers with grievance redressal amid the rapid expansion of technology and Reserve Bank of India (RBI) guidelines on retail banking.
  • It is a non-resolving advisory platform guiding customers on the remedies available per RBI guidelines.
  • It serves as an additional channel alongside the normal Banking Ombudsman process.
  • Under this initiative, customers can register their complaints on the Bank Clinic website and within five working days, they will receive a reply detailing the available remedies and relevant RBI guidelines for their specific issue
  • The goal is to ensure timely and effective redressal of customer issues.
  • It guides customers on available remedies but does not directly resolve queries.
  • The Bank Clinic helps build goodwill with customers.
  • It provides valuable feedback to banks, highlighting areas where service deficiencies exist.


  • The All India Bank Employees Association (AIBEA) is a national trade union representing bank employees across India.