Today’s Current Affairs: 6th Apr 2023 for UPSC IAS exams, State PSC exams, SSC CGL, State SSC, RRB, Railways, Banking Exam & IBPS, etc
Table of Contents
Dhawan II Engine:
A private space vehicle company Skyroot Aerospace test-fired its 3D-printed Dhawan II engine.
- Dhawan II engine is a 3D-printed cryogenic engine developed by the Skyroot Aerospace for its heavier vehicle, the Vikram II rocket.
- It uses a 3D-printed torch igniter and bellows actuated cryo-injection valve with a quick response time.
- It utilises two high-performance rocket propellants, liquid natural gas (LNG) and liquid oxygen (LoX), which require cryogenic temperatures (below -150° Celsius) for storage and operation.
- A cryogenic upper stage enhances the payload-carrying capacity of a rocket.
- The cryogenic engine series is named in honour of Dr Satish Dhawan, an Indian rocket scientist.
- 3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making three-dimensional solid objects from a digital file.
World Energy Transitions Outlook Report:
The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) released the World Energy Transitions Outlook report.
Highlights of the report:
- The global energy transition is still “off-track” and falls short of the 1.5 degrees Celsius pathway.
- To keep 1.5°C alive, deployment levels must grow from some 3,000 gigawatts (GW) at present to over 10,000 GW in 2030, an average of 1,000 GW annually”.
- Public sector intervention is required to channel investments towards countries more equitably.
- Global investment in energy transition technologies reached a new record of $1.3 trillion in 2022, yearly investments must more than quadruple to over $5 trillion to stay on the 1.5 degrees Celsius pathway.
- By 2030, cumulative investments must amount to USD 44 trillion, with transition technologies representing 80 per cent of the total, or $35 trillion, “prioritising efficiency, electrification, grid expansion and flexibility”.
- Current pledges and plans fall well short of IRENA’s 1.5°C pathway and will result in an emissions gap of 16 gigatonnes (Gt) in 2050.
International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA):
- The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is an intergovernmental organisation that supports countries in their transition to a sustainable energy future.
- It was officially founded in Bonn, Germany, on 26 January 2009.
High Mobility Artillery Rocket Systems:
The United States recently announced an additional package of military aid to Ukraine, totalling $2.6 billion, which includes additional ammunition for the High Mobility Artillery Rocket Systems (HIMARS).
- High Mobility Artillery Rocket Systems (HIMARS) is a light multiple rocket launcher.
- It is manufactured by Lockheed Martin Corporation, a US-based security and aerospace company.
- It is an air-transportable wheeled launcher mounted on 5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV).
- It can fire six guided missiles in quick succession.
- Himars fires GPS-guided missiles which can be more accurately targeted.
- The missiles supplied to Ukraine have a range of up to 50 miles (80 km).
- Himars can also fire a single Army Tactical Missile System missile, which has a range of 186 miles (300 km).
Crohn’s Disease : New Way To Treat
A recent study suggests that a two-drug combination may offer a new way to treat inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease.
- Crohn’s Disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
- It is a chronic, or long-term condition that causes inflammation in the digestive tract.
- It is not clear what causes Crohn’s disease.
- Experts suggest that it may stem from an abnormal reaction of the immune system.
- Although it typically starts in childhood or early adulthood, Crohn’s disease can develop at any age.
- Inflammation caused by Crohn’s disease can involve different areas of the digestive tract in different people, most commonly the small intestine.
- The most common symptoms of Crohn’s disease are diarrhoea, cramping and pain in your abdomen, anaemia, altered appetite, and weight loss.
- There’s no known cure for Crohn’s disease, but therapies can greatly reduce its signs and symptoms.
Finland Joins NATO:
Finland has officially joined NATO after its application was ratified in record time. This move was supported by the majority of NATO members, who believed that Finland’s membership would enhance the alliance’s strength in the Baltic area.
- Finland has joined NATO due to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, which has made its smaller neighbors feel the need for the powerful military backing that NATO provides.
- Finland and Sweden applied for NATO membership after the invasion.
- By Joining NATO Finland has gained better security, but it is losing out on significant trade and tourism revenue it was making from Russia, and its status as a confidence-building presence in the Baltic Sea and Europe at large is being threatened.
- For NATO, the addition of Finland brings in a military trained to repel an attack from Russia and strengthens its position to station weapons closer to Russia.
- NATO, or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, is a political and military alliance consisting of 31 member countries.
- It was formed in 1949 to promote mutual defence and collective security among its members.
- In 1949, there were 12 founding members of the Alliance: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States.
- Since then, 19 more countries have joined the Alliance: Greece and Turkey (1952); Germany (1955); Spain (1982); Czechia, Hungary and Poland (1999); Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia (2004); Albania and Croatia (2009); Montenegro (2017); North Macedonia (2020); and Finland (2023).
Chhukha Hydroelectric Project:
India recently agreed to an upward revision of tariff of the Chhukha hydroelectric project.
- Chhukha Hydroelectric Project is a run-of-the-river reservoir-based project.
- It is located in the Wangchu River/basin in Chukha, Bhutan.
- Installed capacity is 336 MW.
- It was built by the Government of India (GoI) at the cost of Rs. 246 crores.
- The GoI fully funded this project with a 60 per cent grant and a 40 per cent loan.
- The project construction commenced in 1979 and subsequently entered into commercial operation in 1986.
- The power generated from the project is sold to the Eastern Regional Power Grid of India under a power purchase agreement.
Anti-Dumping Of Sodium Cyanide Imports:
India has initiated an anti-dumping probe into imports of poisonous chemical sodium cyanide from China, the European Union, Japan and Korea following a complaint by domestic companies.
- An application has been filed by Hindusthan Chemical Company and United Phosphorous Ltd for the probe and the imposition of appropriate anti-dumping duty on imports from these nations.
- The Union commerce ministry’s investigation arm Directorate General of Trade Remedies (DGTR) is probing the alleged dumping of the cyanide originating in or exported from China, the European Union, Japan and Korea.
- Sodium cyanide appears as a white crystalline solid, lump solid or powder.
- It contains equal numbers of sodium cations and cyanide anions.
- It is used as an insecticide, a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors, and in many industrial processes.
- It is also used for the extraction of gold and silver from their respective ores, dyes, pigments, and bulk drugs.
- An anti-dumping duty is a protectionist tariff that a domestic government imposes on foreign imports that it believes are priced below fair market value.
- Dumping is a process wherein a company exports a product at a price that is significantly lower than the price it normally charges in its home (or its domestic) market.
India Justice Report 2022:
According to the India Justice Report (IJR) 2022 (3rd edition), the State of Karnataka emerged at the top among the 18 large and mid-sized States with populations of over one crore.
- The state of Tamil Nadu has secured the second position in the rankings, while Telangana has secured the third position.
- The State of Gujarat has got the fourth position and Andhra Pradesh is at slot five as per the report which was released on April 4 in New Delhi.
- On the other hand, the state of Uttar Pradesh has been ranked at 18, which is the lowest among the states considered in the report.
- This report is based on 24-month quantitative research.
- The IJR 2022, like the previous two, has tracked the performance of States in capacitating their Justice delivery structures to effectively deliver mandated services
- The IJR report aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of the state of justice delivery in India and to identify areas where improvement is needed.
- The report is based on extensive data analysis and is designed to be a tool for policymakers, researchers, and other stakeholders to identify areas where reform is needed to improve justice delivery in India.
- This report is based on overall data of 4 pillars of justice delivery namely Police, Judiciary, Prisons, and Legal Aid.
- The India Justice Report (IJR) was initiated by Tata Trusts in 2019, and this is the third edition
Lokpal’s office recently informed that Around 68% of corruption complaints against public functionaries that landed with the Lokpal were “disposed off” without any action in the past four years.
- The Lokpal is a statutory body established under the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act 2013.
- The Lokpal will consist of a chairperson and a maximum of eight members.
- Chairperson should be either the former Chief Justice of India Or the former Judge of the Supreme Court, or an eminent person who fulfils eligibility criteria as specified.
- Out of the maximum eight members, half will be judicial members. The judicial member of the Lokpal should be either a former Judge of the Supreme Court or a former Chief Justice of a High Court.
- Minimum fifty per cent of the Members will be from SC / ST / OBC / Minorities and women.
- It has jurisdiction to inquire into allegations of corruption against anyone who is or has been Prime Minister, or a Minister in the Union government, or a Member of Parliament, as well as officials of the Union Government under Groups A, B, C and D.
Amogha-III : Anti Tank Guided Missile
The indigenous Anti Tank Guided Missile, Amogha-III tests were announced as successful.
- Amogha-III is an indigenous missile.
- It is developed under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP).
- It has a fire-and-forget capability.
- Fire-and-forget capability means it does not require external intervention after launch.
- The missile features dual-mode Imaging Infra-Red (IIR) Seeker systems with a range of 200 to 2500 meters.
- It showcases a tandem warhead, consisting of two separate explosive charges that are detonated in sequence.
- The first charge, known as the precursor charge, penetrates the target’s armour, creating a hole.
- The second charge or the main charge then detonates inside, maximizing damage inflicted on the target.
- One of the unique features of the missile is it has both top and direct attack modes.
Nagri Dubraj Rice And Langda Mango : Geographical Indication Tag
Nagri Dubraj Rice:-
It is known as the Basmati of Chhattisgarh because of its fragrance.
- It is produced by a women’s self-help group “Maa Durga Swasahayata Samuh“.
- The grain finds reference in Valmiki Ramayana.
- It is an indigenous variety and has small grains, is very soft to eat after cooking.
Langra aam is believed to have originated in Banaras.
- It maintains its green colour after it gets ripe, while other mangoes change into yellow-reddish colour.
- This pulpy fruit is cultivated in mid-season in states including Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Punjab, West Bengal and Rajasthan
National Policy For Rare Diseases 2021 : Exemption From Basic Customs Duty
The Union Government has given full exemption from basic customs duty on all drugs and food for special medical purposes imported for personal use for treatment of all Rare Diseases listed under the National Policy for Rare Diseases 2021.
- The exemption has been granted by the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) by substituting “Drugs, Medicines or Food for Special Medical Purposes (FSMP)” instead of “drugs or medicines”.
- Rare diseases (also called “Orphan” diseases) are broadly defined as diseases that infrequently occur in a population and three markers are used (the total number of people with the disease, its prevalence, and the availability/non-availability of treatment options).
- The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines a rare disease as having a frequency of less than 6.5-10 per 10,000 people.
- About 95% rare diseases have no approved treatment and less than 1 in 10 patients receive disease-specific treatment.
National Policy for Rare Diseases, 2021:
- It categories ‘rare disease’ into three groups:
- Group 1: Disorders amenable to one-time curative treatment.
- Group-2: Diseases requiring long term/lifelong treatment having relatively lower cost of treatment and benefit has been documented in literature and annual or more frequent surveillance is required.
- Group 3:- Diseases for which definitive treatment is available but challenges are to make optimal patient selection for benefit, very high cost and lifelong therapy.
- The government would notify selected Centres of Excellence at premier government hospitals for comprehensive management of rare diseases.
- Provision for financial support of up to Rs. 50 lakhs to the patients suffering from any category of the Rare Diseases and for treatment in any of the Centre of Excellence (CoE) mentioned in NPRD-2021, outside the Umbrella Scheme of Rashtriya Arogaya
The 10th edition of IN-SLN bilateral maritime exercise SLINEX-23 was scheduled to take place in Colombo.
- SLINEX-23 is an India -Sri Lanka Bilateral Maritime Exercise.
- This is the 10th edition of the exercise.
- It is scheduled to take place in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
- Indian Navy is being represented by INS Kiltan.
- INS Kiltan is an indigenous Kamorta class ASW Corvette and
- The Sri Lanka Navy is represented by SLNS Gajabahu and SLNS Sagara.