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The recent spread of monkeypox to non-endemic countries has trained the spotlight on reemerging viruses such as buffalopox, which was first isolated in India.

  • Since the first case in 1934 globally recorded in India, the country has seen several sporadic outbreaks.


  • It is a zoonotic disease endemic to India.
  • It has its root in smallpox vaccines. Live virus used to inoculate buffaloes to produce the smallpox vaccine in India evolved into buffalopox over time.
  • It is caused by buffalopox virus (BPXV); it is a Poxviridae for which the natural host is buffalo.
  • It is classified in the Orthopoxvirus (OPV)
  • Symptoms: Lesions occur localized on the udder, teats, and inguinal region, over the parotid, and the base and inner surface of the ear and eyes.