Inflammatory Bowel Disease:
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) has undergone a significant shift in prevalence in India, as per a recent study published in the Lancet journal.
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
- These conditions cause inflammation and damage to the lining of the digestive tract, leading to various symptoms and complications.
- The two main types of IBD are Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
- Crohn’s disease can affect any part of the GI tract, from the mouth to the anus, but most commonly involves the end of the small intestine (ileum) and the beginning of the large intestine (colon).
- The inflammation in Crohn’s disease can extend deep into the layers of the bowel tissue and may involve skip lesions (affected areas separated by healthy ones).
- Ulcerative colitis is type of IBD affects the large intestine (colon) and the rectum.
- The inflammation in ulcerative colitis usually begins in the rectum and spreads continuously up the colon in a continuous pattern.
- The inner lining of the colon becomes inflamed, leading to the formation of ulcers.
- It can vary in severity and may include:
- Abdominal pain and cramping
- Diarrhea (which can be bloody in ulcerative colitis)
- Weight loss and loss of appetite
- Rectal bleeding (common in ulcerative colitis)
- Joint pain and inflammation
- The exact cause of IBD is unknown, but IBD is the result of a weakened immune system. Possible causes are:
- The immune system responds incorrectly to environmental triggers, such as a virus or bacteria, which causes inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.