On 13th September, 1948, India’s military action known as “Operation Polo” was launched to integrate the princely state of Hyderabad, a significant event in Indian history.
- The Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Shah, had hesitated to join India or Pakistan after Independence, capitalizing on the Indian government’s preoccupation with the Kashmir conflict.
- A standstill agreement signed in November 1947 maintained the status quo between Hyderabad and India for a year, allowing the Nizam to continue governing independently.
- However, escalating tensions, cross-border raids, and intentions to establish an independent state, prompted India to act.
- The operation saw well-planned military thrusts from multiple directions, ultimately leading to the surrender of the Hyderabad state forces.
- This pivotal campaign, carried out under the watchful eye of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, culminated in a ceasefire declaration on 17th September, 1948 effectively placing Hyderabad under Indian control by 18th September, 1948.