CrackitToday App

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC IAS: 25th April 2024

Today’s Current Affairs: 25th April 2024 for UPSC IAS exams, State PSC exams, SSC CGL, State SSC, RRB, Railways, Banking Exam & IBPS, etc

Bulletproof Jacket : DRDO

The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed the lightest bulletproof jacket in India.

  • The jacket, designed by the Defence Materials and Stores Research and Development Establishment (DMSRDE) in Kanpur, offers protection against the highest threat level 6 as per BIS 17051 standards.
  • Lightest bulletproof jacket provides protection against 7.62 x 54 R API ammunition (Level 6 of BIS 17051)
  • It Utilizes a new design approach with novel materials and processes
  • Front Hard Armour Panel (HAP) can withstand multiple hits (6 shots) from sniper rounds
  • Ergonomically designed front HAP made of monolithic ceramic plate with polymer backing
  • Enhances wearability and comfort during operations
  • It is Successfully tested at Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory (TBRL), Chandigarh

Second Uncrewed Gaganyaan Test : ISRO

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is set to achieve another milestone in its prestigious Gaganyaan mission, India’s first human spaceflight program.

  • The second uncrewed test flight is planned with two more uncrewed missions will take place in 2025.
  • In October 2023, ISRO successfully conducted an In-flight Abort Demonstration of the Crew Escape System (CES) at Mach number 1.2 with a newly developed Test Vehicle.
  • The objectives included flight demonstration and evaluation of Test Vehicle subsystems, evaluation of CES, and demonstration of Crew Module characteristics and deceleration systems at higher altitude.
  • Human Space Flight Centre (HSFC) the lead center for human spaceflight activities, will spearhead the Gaganyaan program.
  • It will coordinate efforts and focus activities carried out in other ISRO centers, research labs, Indian academia, and industries to accomplish the mission.
  • HSFC will develop critical technologies such as life support systems, human factors engineering, crew training, and human rating and certification.
  • The project aims to demonstrate human spaceflight capability by launching a crew of three members to an orbit of 400 km for a 3-day mission.
  • The crew will be brought back safely to Earth, landing in Indian sea waters.

Myanmar’s Karen Ethnic Minority:

Myanmar’s Karen ethnic minority asserted their proximity to capturing a significant Myawaddy trading town adjacent to the Thailand border.

  • The Karen ethnic minority, indigenous to the Thailand-Burma border region in Southeast Asia, predominantly resides in the Karen State of Myanmar.
  • Their origin is believed to have roots tracing back to the Gobi Desert in Mongolia.
  • Myawaddy is Myanmar’s most active trading post with Thailand and its fall would have significant economic implications.
  • The Karen National Union (KNU) is the political organisation representing the Karen people and has an armed wing, the Karen National Liberation Army.
  • The conflict in Myanmar began after the army ousted the elected government of Aung San Suu Kyi in 2021 and suppressed widespread nonviolent protests.
  • Myawaddyy is a trading town in Myanmar that connects with Mae Sot in Thailand.
  • These are the endpoints of the India- Myanmar- Trilateral Highway.

Padma Awards 2024:

President Droupadi Murmu presented the prestigious Padma Awards of 2024 to a distinguished group of people.

  • The group included former Vice-President M. Venkaiah Naidu, actor and politician Mithun Chakraborty, singer Usha Uthup, and tennis player Rohan Bopanna and others.
  • The founder of Sulabh International Bindeshwar Pathak and Bharatanatyam dancer Padma Subrahmanyam were conferred with Padma Vibhushan.
  • For 2024, the President had approved the conferment of 132 Padma awards, including two duo cases (in a duo case, the Award is counted as one).
  • The list comprises 5 Padma Vibhushan, 17 Padma Bhushan and 110 Padma Shri Awards.
  • 30 of the awardees are women, 8 persons from the category of Foreigners/NRI/PIO/OCI and 9 Posthumous awardees.
  • The Padma Awards are announced annually on Republic Day (26th January) was instituted in 1954, it is one of the highest civilian honours of India.
  • Objective to recognise achievements in all fields of activities or disciplines where an element of public service is involved.
  • The Awards are given in three categories:
    • Padma Vibhushan (for exceptional and distinguished service),
    • Padma Bhushan (distinguished service of higher order) and
    • Padma Shri (distinguished service).
  • Padma Vibhushan is highest in the hierarchy of Padma Awards followed by Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri.

Marine Cloud Brightening:

Scientists are testing a geoengineering technique called marine cloud brightening.

  • This method involves using machines to inject tiny saltwater particles into marine stratocumulus clouds, aiming to increase their reflectivity and cool the Earth.
  • Marine cloud brightening is a scientific initiative that explores how altering atmospheric particles (aerosols) can impact cloud reflectivity.
  • By releasing tiny aerosol particles into the atmosphere, researchers aim to enhance cloud brightness, leading to increased sunlight reflection.
  • Aerosols of the right size and concentration could significantly increase the reflectivity of specific types of clouds.
  • This phenomenon is visible in satellite images of clouds brightened by ship emissions (known as “ship tracks”).

Marine Cloud Brightening Program:

  • Better understanding of the present-day effects of pollution aerosols on clouds.
  • Investigate whether aerosol particles made from sea salt could be used to intentionally reduce near-term climate warming while greenhouse gas concentrations are brought down to safer levels.
  • Understand the benefits, risks, and efficacy of the intentional use of aerosols to reduce warming through different implementations of marine cloud brightening.

Golden Trevally Fish:

Researchers of the ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) have succeeded in captive breeding of golden trevally (Gnathanodon speciosus)

  • Golden trevally Fish is a high value marine fish also known as golden king fish.
  • It is a reef-associated fish and lives in the company of larger fishes like skates, sharks, groupers etc.
  • It is an ideal candidate species for mariculture due to its faster growth rates, good meat quality and huge market demand for both consumption and ornamental purposes.
  • In India, the fish landing observations show that the golden trevally are landed predominantly at reef area fishing grounds in Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Kerala, Karnataka and Gujarat.

State Of The Climate In Asia 2023 Report:

The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) published the State of the Climate in Asia, 2023, report.

  • State of the Climate in Asia 2023 Report was launched by the World Meteorological Organisation.
  • Important highlights of the report are:
    • More than nine million people across Asia were affected by 79 extreme climate disasters reported on the continent in 2023.
    • Asia and the Pacific was the most disaster-impacted region last year.
    • Atmospheric concentration of the three major greenhouse gases – carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide – reached record highs in 2022.
    • Oceans have absorbed around 25% of annual man-made carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere between 1960 and 2021.
    • The trend continues, and ocean heat content in 2023 was the highest on record.
    • The tropical cyclone activity over the North Indian Ocean was slightly above average.
    • Asia recorded its second-highest mean temperature on record in 2023. Japan and Kazakhstan observed record warm years.
    • Glaciers continued to retreat at an accelerating rate in 2023.
    • High temperatures and dry conditions in East Himalayas and Central Asia’s Tian Shan mountains accelerated glacial mass loss.

Pink Hydrogen:

Nuclear energy can be used to to spur ‘pink’ hydrogen generation in India by amending the respected law.

  • Pink Hydrogen is generated through electrolysis powered by nuclear energy. It can also be referred to as purple hydrogen or red hydrogen.
  • The very high temperatures from nuclear reactors could be used in other hydrogen productions by producing steam for more efficient electrolysis or fossil gas-based steam methane reforming.
  • Nuclear power offers significant advantages for pink hydrogen production, including reducing production costs and emissions, making it a sustainable and more cost-effective alternative to conventional methods.
  • Pink hydrogen is a promising replacement for fossil fuels in the cement industry, steel industry, aviation and heavy transportation, as it can be used as a feedstock and energy source with no greenhouse gas emissions.

English Channel : Five People Died

Five people died in an attempt to cross the English Channel recently, hours after Britain passed a bill to deport asylum seekers to Rwanda to try to deter the dangerous crossings.

  • English Channel is a narrow arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the southern coast of England (part of Great Britain) from the northern coast of France.
  • It is separated from the North Sea on the north by the Strait of Dover.
  • Temperate maritime climate with warm summers and cold winters.
  • The main islands are the Isle of Wight and the Channel Islands (a collection of islands including Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark).
  • It is one of the world’s busiest shipping areas, linking southern England, to northern France.
  • It accounts for up to 20% of the global maritime trade and connects the Atlantic Ocean to the North Sea.