Thriving: Making Cities Green, Resilient, And Inclusive In a Changing Climate : World Bank Report
A recent report by the World Bank titled “Thriving: Making Cities Green, Resilient, and Inclusive in a Changing Climate” provides guidance to local and national policymakers on how to create greener, more resilient, and inclusive cities.
Status of Cities in terms of their greenness, resilience, and inclusiveness:
- Cities in North America are among the largest per capita emitters of greenhouse gases.
- Cities in Bangladesh and India are more vulnerable to floods, heat stress, and cyclones, resulting in severe economic consequences.
- Cities in low- and lower-middle-income countries often struggle with inadequate access to healthcare, education, and essential utilities such as water and electricity.
- Delhi, Kanpur, Patna etc. have experienced high levels of PM2.5, especially during the winter season
- New York City, have higher population density and economic activity compared to cities with sprawled development.
- Cities like Tokyo, with limited green spaces, face higher temperatures during heat waves due to the lack of vegetation and increased heat retention.
Five sets of instruments to improve the greenness, resilience, and inclusiveness of cities :
- Information Policies and measures to provide credible and timely information to individuals, businesses, and local governments about climate change risks, mitigation and adaptation measures Establishing a climate change information centre to provide climate risks data specific to their city.
- Incentives : It includes removing subsidies that encourage activities with negative environmental externalities, Implementing tax incentives or rebates for installing energy-efficient technologies FAME I and II scheme, EU’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM)
- Insurance Developing climate risk insurance schemes that provide coverage for businesses and households against losses from extreme weather events, encouraging investment in climate-resilient infrastructure and enabling quick recovery.
- Integration Policy interventions promoting compact cities and better integration between urban and rural areas; Developing efficient public transportation networks that connect urban and rural areas E.g., Smart City mission, PURA Scheme.
- Investments: Investments by national and local governments in green, resilient, and inclusive urban infrastructure. This includes nature-based solutions and measures to attract private-sector finance for sustainable development. Allocating funds for the construction of green buildings, renewable energy projects, and urban parks.