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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC IAS: 2nd March 2023

Today’s Current Affairs: 2nd March 2023 for UPSC IAS exams, State PSC exams, SSC CGL, State SSC, RRB, Railways, Banking Exam & IBPS, etc

Senior Mission Leaders (SML) Course:

The Central government has sought nominations for Senior Mission Leaders’ (SML) course to be held in Japan’s capital Tokyo from June 19 to 30 this year.

  • The Union Home Ministry has directed all states and Union Territories to nominate three candidates – one each from the military, police, and civilian domains
  • The SML course aims to prepare senior personnel for future roles and responsibilities as mission leaders in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations, enabling them to plan, manage, and lead such missions.
  • Participants who complete the course will be equipped to lead UN peacekeeping missions.
  • The course is designed to deepen the understanding of contemporary United Nations peace operations and prepare participants for leadership positions in peacekeeping missions.
  • Senior Mission Leaders (SML) Course started in the year 2005 and is the highest recognised course in the UN system.

India-UK Young Professionals Scheme:

India opens Young Professionals Scheme visas for U.K. graduates

  • Under the reciprocal scheme, Indian and British nationals aged between 18 and 30 can apply to live and work in either country for a period of up to two years.
  • Under the Young Professionals Scheme, announced about a month ago, young citizens of India and the U.K. can visit each other for up to two years at a time,” said Indian High Commissioner to the U.K. Vikram Doraiswami, announcing the scheme’s launch on Twitter.
  • To avail of the benefits of the scheme, the person should be an Indian citizen, he or should be between 18 to 30 years old, should have at least 2,350 pounds in savings
  • Persons entering through the scheme can set up the company. However, the equipment used in the company should not exceed 5,000 pounds. And such people cannot hire employees
  • The scheme is not for family members
  • People availing of the benefits of the scheme cannot work as sportspersons

1D Wormhole Corrosion : New Form Of Corrosion

Scientists have recently discovered a new form of corrosion known as the 1D wormhole corrosion.

  • This type of corrosion is characterized by a wormhole-like 1D morphology that can serve as a mass-flow pathway.
  • The discovery of this type of corrosion is significant for the understanding of material degradation mechanisms in molten salt environments, particularly in relation to next-generation nuclear power plants that use molten salts as coolants.
  • The 1D wormhole corrosion is a highly localized form of penetrating corrosion that occurs in a nickel-chromium alloy when exposed to molten fluoride salt.
  • This type of corrosion leads to the development of a percolating network of tunnels along grain boundaries.
  • These tunnels are filled with molten salt and leave voids along the grain boundaries.
  • The 1D wormhole corrosion is characterized by a wormhole-like 1D morphology that can serve as a mass-flow pathway.
  • The discovery of the 1D wormhole corrosion has important implications for the understanding of material degradation mechanisms in molten salt environments.
  • Molten salts are a key candidate for coolants in next-generation nuclear power plants.
  • These power plants are being designed to be safer, more efficient, and more sustainable than current nuclear power plants.
  • The use of molten salts as coolants is particularly attractive because they have a high thermal conductivity and a high boiling point.
  • This makes them ideal for transferring heat away from the reactor core and for generating electricity.

Raisina Dialogue 2023 : Theme

The eighth edition of the Raisina Dialogue is to be held in March 2023.

  • The dialogue is to be held on geo-strategy and geopolitics.
  • The Chief Guest of Raisina Dialogue 2023 is the Italian Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni.
  • The theme of Raisina Dialogue 2023 : Provocation, Uncertainty, Turbulence: Lighthouse in the Tempest

Raisina Dialogue:

  • It is an annual conference held on geo-economics and geo-politics.
  • During the dialogue, different stakeholders such as researchers, scholars, students, and journalists share their knowledge.
  • Dialogue mostly focuses on international relations, foreign policies, nuclear issues, and geopolitics

Hidden Mantle Layers : New Studies

According to two new studies, the mantle, a layer of solid rock sandwiched between the Earth’s upper crust and lower core, has been hiding two new layers.

  • The first layer is a low viscosity zone in the upper mantle, approximately 100 kilometres thick, which was discovered by studying deep earthquakes (2018 Fiji earthquake of 8.2 magnitude) using GPS sensors.
  • The second layer is a partially molten layer that extends from 90 km to 150 kilometres and sits below the tectonic plates.
  • This layer was discovered by analysing seismic waves from earthquakes and suggests a higher temperature.
  • The Earth’s mantle is a layer of solid rock that extends from the bottom of the crust to the top of the core, with a thickness of approximately 2,900 kilometres (1,800 miles).
  • The mantle is the largest layer of the Earth’s interior, making up about 84% of the Earth’s volume and about 68% of its mass.
  • The mantle is composed of silicate rocks rich in iron and magnesium, and is divided into the upper mantle and the lower mantle.

Mob Lynching : Incident Of Killing And Burning Of Two Men In Haryana

Incident of killing and burning of two men in Haryana on suspicion of illegal transportation, smuggling or slaughtering of cows by cow vigilantes highlight the issue of Mob Lynching.

  • Mob lynching refers to targeted violence by a large group of people which includes offenses against the human body or property, whether public or private.
  • The mob believes they are punishing the victim for some perceived wrongdoing, even if it’s not necessarily illegal and take the law into their own hands disregarding legal rules and procedures.
  • Cow vigilantism or lynching in the name of Cow Protection poses a serious threat to the secular fabric of the nation. Killing of people just on the suspicion of beef depicts the intolerance among the vigilantes.
  • Mob lynching is a violation of human dignity, Article 21 of the Constitution, and a gross infringement of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • Such incidents violate the Right to Equality and Prohibition of discrimination, which are enshrined in Articles 14 and 15 of the Constitution of India.
  • However, it is nowhere mentioned in the law of the land and is hence simply put as murder since it has not been yet incorporated under the Indian Penal Code.

QR-Code Based Coin Vending Machine : RBI

RBI recently announced its plan to launch a pilot project to assess the functioning of QR-code based coin vending machines (QCVM).

  • QCVM is a cashless coin dispensation machine that would dispense coins with the requisite amount being debited from the customer’s account using United Payments Interface (UPI).
  • It will eliminate the need for physical tendering of banknotes and their authentication.
  • It will be launched with an aim to promote the distribution of coins and enhance the accessibility to coins.
  • Customers will also have the option to withdraw coins in required quantity and denominations in QCVMs.
  • The pilot project is planned to be initially rolled out at 19 locations in 12 cities across the country.
  • These vending machines are intended to be installed at public places such as railway stations, shopping malls, and marketplaces to enhance ease and accessibility.

First Anti-Corruption Working Group Meeting (ACWG) Of G-20:

The First Anti-Corruption Working Group Meeting (ACWG) of G-20 is set to take place in Gurugram, Haryana, from 1st to 3rd March 2023.

  • It is under India’s chairpersonship, and Italy is the co-chair country.
  • Over 90 delegates from 20 member countries, 10 Invitee countries, and 9 International Organizations will engage in detailed deliberations on strengthening International Anti-corruption mechanisms.
  • Focus areas:
    • Enhancing the effectiveness of asset-tracing and identification mechanisms;
    • Developing mechanisms for rapid restrain of illicit assets;
    • Promoting effective use of open-source information and asset recovery networks;
  • The theme of India’s G20 Presidency is – “VasudhaivaKutumbakam” or “One Earth. One Family, One Future”.
  • The G20 Anti-Corruption Working Group (ACWG) was set up in June 2010 at the Toronto Summit.
  • G20 ACWG has been at the forefront of guiding the anti-corruption initiatives of G20 countries

CE-20 Cryogenic Engine:

ISRO recently conducted a flight test of cryogenic engine for the Chandrayan-3 mission.

  • CE-20 cryogenic engine has been designed and developed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) , a subsidiary of ISRO.
  • It will power the Cryogenic Upper Stage of the LVM3 launch vehicle for the Chandrayaan-3 mission.
  • It is the first Indian cryogenic engine to feature a gas-generator cycle.
  • It is one of the most powerful upper-stage cryogenic engines in the world.
  • This engine develops a nominal thrust of 186.36 kN in vacuum.
  • The cryogenic stage is technically a very complex system due to its use of propellants at extremely low temperatures and the associated thermal and structural problems.
  • It uses liquid fuels that are cooled to very low temperatures.
  • A Cryogenic rocket stage is more efficient and provides more thrust for every kilogram of propellant it burns compared to solid and earth-storable liquid propellant rocket stages.

Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Kendras (PMBKs): Increased

Union Health Minister recently said that the number of Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Kendras (PMBKs) has increased to 9,082 as on January 31, 2023.

  • Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Kendras (PMBKs) are set up under Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana, which was launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers in November 2008.
  • Objective: To provide quality medicines at affordable prices for all, particularly the poor, so as to reduce out-of-pocket expenses in healthcare.
  • PMBKs provides generic drugs, which are available at lesser prices but are equivalent in quality and efficacy as expensive branded drugs.
  • All therapeutic medicines are made available from Jan Aushadhi Stores.
  • Jan Aushadhi stores also sell allied medical products commonly sold in chemist shops so as to improve the viability of running the Jan Aushadhi store.
  • Pharmaceutical & Medical Devices Bureau of India (PMBI) has been established under the Department of Pharmaceuticals, Govt. of India, with the support of all the CPSUs for co-coordinating procurement, supply, and marketing of generic drugs through the PMBKs.
  • State Governments or any organization / reputed NGOs / Trusts / Private hospitals / charitable institutions / Doctors / Unemployed pharmacists/ individual entrepreneurs are eligible to apply for the new Jan Aushadhi Kendra.
  • The applicants shall have to employ one B Pharma / D Pharma degree holder as Pharmacist in their proposed store.

Clean Energy Transition : Report


According to a report from Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis (IEEFA) and Ember, Karnataka and Gujarat have emerged as India’s frontrunners in the transition to clean electricity.

  • Ember is an independent, not-for-profit climate and energy think tank while the IEEFA examines issues related to energy markets, trends, and policies.

Highlights of the Report:

  • The report ‘Indian States’ Energy Transition’ prepared a scoring system for 16 States (account for 90% of electricity production in India), and their performances are assessed on four broad parameters namely:
    • Decarbonisation
    • Performance of the Power System
    • Readiness of the Power ecosystem
    • Policies and Political commitments
  • Karnataka is the only state among the 16 analysed that scored well across all four dimensions of clean electricity transition.
  • The State also exceeded its target of segregating feeders by 16% and achieved 100% of its target of installing smart meters.
  • Gujarat was a little behind Karnataka in terms of decarbonising its electricity sector.
  • Haryana and Punjab have shown promising preparations and implementations for electricity transition
  • States like West Bengal, Bihar and UP are lagging far behind in the field.
  • West Bengal scored low across all the parameters and its outstanding payments to generators have increased by 500% from March 2018 to March 2022.
  • Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu need to improve their power system readiness.