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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC IAS: 5th April 2024

Today’s Current Affairs: 5th April 2024 for UPSC IAS exams, State PSC exams, SSC CGL, State SSC, RRB, Railways, Banking Exam & IBPS, etc

Ozone On Callisto : Jupiters Largest Moon

An international team of scientists, led by researchers from the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) in Ahmedabad, has discovered strong evidence indicating the presence of ozone on Callisto, one of Jupiter’s largest moons.

  • The study, published in the March 2024 issue of the journal Icarus, sheds light on the complex chemical processes occurring on the icy celestial body and its potential for hosting life.
  • The team, led by R. Ramachandran from PRLs Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics Division, investigated the chemical evolution of sulphur dioxide (SO2) ice under irradiation, simulating the conditions on Callistos surface.
  • The experiments were conducted at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) in Taiwan, which provided access to the high-energy radiation sources needed to recreate the solar radiation reaching the moons surface.

Categorization Of Energy Drinks:

The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has recently issued a directive calling all E-Commerce companies to appropriately categorize beverage drinks.

  • The FSSAI refrains E-Commerce platforms from referring to cereal based, dairy based or malt based beverages as “Energy Based Drinks” or “Health Drinks”. Within the perspective of the countries food laws, the directive seeks the correct and relevant definition of “Health Drinks”.
  • FSSAI entails food safety on the lines of handling mechanisms, preparation processes, and storage facilities in methods that prevent the onset of food borne illnesses.
  • Beverages and bars are also hereby included in advisories to comply with these food standards.

myCGHS App:

The secretary of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare launched the myCGHS app

  • myCGHS app is designed to enhance access to Electronic Health Records, information and resources for Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS) beneficiaries.
  • It is developed by the technical teams of the National Informatics Centre (NIC) Himachal Pradesh and NIC Health Team.
  • It is a convenient mobile application offering features aimed at enhancing information and accessibility for CGHS beneficiaries.
  • It facilitates a wide range of services, including booking and cancellation of online appointments, downloading CGHS card and index card, accessing lab reports from CGHS labs, checking medicine history, checking medical reimbursement claim status, accessing referral details and locating nearby wellness centers etc.
  • The app features security features like 2-factor authentication and functionality of mPIN ensuring the confidentiality and integrity of users’ data.

Postal Ballot : Polling Personnel Engaged In Election Duty

The Election Commission has notified the facility of voting through postal ballot for polling personnel engaged in election duty.

  • Postal ballot is also known as absentee voting, is a method of voting in which electors cast their ballots by mail rather than in person at a polling station.
  • Eligibility:
    • Members of the armed forces, paramilitary forces and other government employees deployed on election duty far from their home constituencies.
    • Individuals who are unable to vote in person due to reasons such as being away from their home constituency for work, illness or disability.
    • Government officials and polling staff who are assigned duties at polling stations other than their own.
    • Individuals who are detained under preventive custody orders during the election period.
  • To apply for a postal ballot, eligible voters must submit an application to the Returning Officer (RO) of their respective constituency.
  • The application form typically requires personal details, voter identification information, and the reason for seeking a postal ballot.
  • The RO verifies the eligibility of the applicant and issues the postal ballot if the criteria are met.

Marine Products Export Development Authority:

Officials asserted that the entire value chain for India’s shrimp exports is certified by the Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) and there is no scope for abusive conditions at shrimp farms.

  • Marine Products Export Development Authority is a statutory body entrusted with the primary task of promotion of export of marine products.
  • It was set up by an act of Parliament during 1972.
  • The erstwhile Marine Products Export Promotion Council established by the Government of India in September, 1961 was converged into MPEDA on 24th August, 1972.
  • Functions:
    • Developing and regulating off-shore and deep-sea fishing and undertaking measures for the conservation and management of off-shore and deep-sea fisheries;
    • Registering fishing vessels, processing plants or storage premises for marine products and conveyances used for the transport of marine products; fixing of standards and specifications for marine products for purposes of export;
    • Regulating the export of marine products; registering of exporters of marine products on payment of such fees as may be prescribed;
    • It has set up five full-fledged Quality Control Laboratories, at Kochi, Nellore & Bhimavaram, Bhubaneshwar and Porbandar. In addition, fifteen ELISA Screening Laboratories set up by MPEDA in the maritime states.
  • In order to reach out to the exporters in different parts of the Country, it has set up 18 – Regional / Sub Regional Divisions / Desk offices.
  • Headquarter: Kochi, Kerala

Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria : Behaviors Similar To Organelles

Researchers have discovered nitrogen-fixing symbiotic organisms exhibiting behaviors similar to organelles.

  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms that are capable of transforming nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into “fixed nitrogen” compounds, such as ammonia, that are usable by plants.
  • There are two main types of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
    • Symbiotic or mutualistic: These species live in root nodules of certain plants. Plants of the pea family, known as legumes which are some of the most important hosts for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Examples: Rhizobium, which is associated with plants in the pea family and various Azospirillum species, which are associated with cereal grasses.
    • Other nitrogen-fixing bacteria are free-living and do not require a host. They are commonly found in soil or in aquatic environments. Examples: Cyanobacteria Anabaena and Nostoc and genera such as Azotobacter, Beijerinckia and Clostridium.
  • Nitrogen is a component of proteins and nucleic acids and is essential to life on Earth.
  • Although nitrogen is abundant in the atmosphere, most organisms cannot use it in that form.
  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria accomplish more than 90 percent of all nitrogen fixation and thus play an important role in the nitrogen cycle.

PRATUSH Telescope:

Astronomers are looking forward to posting high-resolution telescopes on the moon and in orbit around it, including one from India called PRATUSH.

  • Probing ReionizATion of the Universe using Signal from Hydrogen (PRATUSH) is a radio telescope to be sited on the moon’s far side.
  • It is being built by the Raman Research Institute (RRI) in Bengaluru with active collaboration from the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
  • Initially, ISRO will place PRATUSH into orbit around the earth. After some fine-tuning, the space agency will launch it moonwards.
  • It will be to detect signals from the first stars and galaxies, reveal the cosmic dawn of the universe, answering the question when the first stars formed, the nature of the first stars and what was the light from the first stars.
  • It will carry a wideband frequency-independent antenna, a self-calibrating analog receiver and a digital correlator to catch radio noise in the all-important signal from the Dark Ages.
  • The target instrument sensitivity is at the level of a few millikelvin without being limited by any systematic features.