30 Minerals As Critical To India:
An expert committee set up by the Central Government recently identified 30 minerals as critical to India, including lithium and vanadium, which are largely used in the manufacturing of batteries.
- Critical Minerals is a metallic or non-metallic element that has two characteristics.
- It is essential for the functioning of our modern technologies, economies or national security and
- There is a risk that its supply chains could be disrupted.
- The ‘criticality’ of minerals changes with time as supply and society’s needs shift.
- They are used to manufacture advanced technologies, including mobile phones, computers, fibre-optic cables, semiconductors, banknotes, and defence, aerospace and medical applications.
- Many are used in low-emission technologies, such as electric vehicles, wind turbines, solar panels, and rechargeable batteries.
- Some are also crucial for common products, such as stainless steel and electronics.
- Examples: antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cobalt, copper, gallium, germanium, lithium, vanadium etc.
- Top Producers: Chile, Indonesia, Congo, China, Australia and South Africa.
Mineral Security Partnership:
- It is an ambitious new initiative to bolster critical mineral supply chains, announced by the United States (US) and key partner countries in June 2022.
- The goal of the alliance is to ensure that critical minerals are produced, processed, and recycled in a manner that supports the ability of countries to realise the full economic development benefit of their geological endowments.