Global Vaccine Market Report 2022 : WHO
The World Health Organisation (WHO) released ‘Global Vaccine Market Report 2022’.
- This is the first report to capture the implications of Covid-19 for vaccine markets highlighting the issue of vaccine inequity.
Findings of the Report:
- It shows that inequitable distribution is not unique to Covid-19 vaccines, with low-income countries consistently struggling to access vaccines that are in-demand by high-income countries.
- Limited vaccine supply and unequal distribution drive global disparities.
- The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against cervical cancer has only been introduced in 41% of low-income countries, even though they represent much of the disease burden, compared to 83% of high-income countries.
- Affordability is a major obstacle to vaccine access. While prices tend to be tiered by income, price disparities see middle-income countries paying as much – or even more – than wealthier ones for several vaccine products.
- Free market dynamics is depriving some of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable people of their right to health. Therefore, changes are much needed to the global vaccine market to save lives, prevent disease and prepare for future crises.
- Approximately 16 billion vaccine doses, worth US$ 141 billion, were supplied in 2021, almost three times the 2019 market volume (5.8 billion) and nearly three-and-a-half times the 2019 market value (US$ 38 billion).
- The increase was primarily driven by Covid-19 vaccines, showing the incredible potential of how vaccine manufacturing can be scaled up in response to health needs.
- Although manufacturing capacity worldwide has increased, it remains highly concentrated.
- Ten manufacturers alone provide 70% of vaccine doses (excluding COVID-19).
- Several of the top 20 most widely used vaccines (such as PCV, HPV, measles and rubella containing vaccines) each currently rely mainly on two suppliers.
- In 2021, the African and Eastern Mediterranean regions were dependent on manufacturers headquartered elsewhere for 90% of their procured vaccines.
- This concentrated manufacturing base leads to risk of shortages as well as regional supply insecurity.
- Entrenched intellectual property monopolies and limited technology transfer further limit the ability of building and using local manufacturing capacity.
- The health of markets is also concerning for several of the vaccines commonly needed for emergencies, such as against cholera, typhoid, smallpox/monkeypox, Ebola, meningococcal disease, where demand surges with outbreaks and is hence less predictable.
- The continued limited investment in these vaccines could be devastating for people’s lives.
- Immunization Agenda 2030 (IA2030):
- The report highlights the opportunities for more alignment of vaccine development, production and distribution with a public health agenda, towards achieving the Immunization Agenda 2030 (IA2030) goals and informing pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response efforts.