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Map of Human Genome

Human Genome:

Scientists had published the map of the human genome for the first time nearly two decades ago which was hailed as a breakthrough.

  • In 2003, scientists got the breakthrough, but it was incomplete as about 8% of the human DNA was left unsequenced.
  • Now for the first time, a large team has accounted for completing the 8% picture of the human genome.
  • In 2020, the Ministry of Science and Technology had approved an ambitious gene-mapping project called the Genome India Project (GIP).
  • A genome refers to all of the genetic material in an organism, and the human genome is mostly the same in all people, but a very small part of the DNA does vary between one individual and another.
  • Every organism’s genetic code is contained in its Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA), the building blocks of life.
  • The discovery that DNA is structured as a “double helix” by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953, started the quest for understanding how genes dictate life, its traits, and what causes diseases.
  • Each genome contains all of the information needed to build and maintain that organism.
  • In humans, a copy of the entire genome contains more than 3 billion DNA base pairs.