Daily Current Affairs for UPSC IAS: 28th July 2022

Today Current Affairs: 28th July 2022 for UPSC IAS exams, State PSC exams, SSC CGL, State SSC, RRB, Railways, Banking Exam & IBPS, etc

 

Global Policy Framework To Protect Children Displaced Due To Climate Change:

United Nations-backed agencies have issued guidelines to provide the first-ever global policy framework to protect children displaced due to climate change.

  • The Guiding Principles for Children on the Move in the Context of Climate Changecontain a set of nine principles that address the unique vulnerabilities of children who have been uprooted. The guidelines cover both internal as well cross-border migrations.
  • The landmark guidelines were launched by the International Organisation for Migration (IOM), the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), Georgetown University and the United Nations University.
  • The Guiding Principles have been developed to safeguard the rights and well-being of children moving in the context of climate change, and are as follows:
    • Principle 1: Rights-based approach
    • Principle 2: Best interests of the child
    • Principle 3: Accountability
    • Principle 4: Awareness and participation in decision-making
    • Principle 5: Family unity
    • Principle 6: Protection, safety and security
    • Principle 7: Access to education, health care and social services
    • Principle 8: Non-discrimination
    • Principle 9: Nationality
  • These Guiding Principles are intended to be used by local and national governments, international organizations and civil society groups working with children on the move in the context of climate change.

Johar:

The 15th President of India, Droupadi Murmu, assumed office with a ‘Johar’ greeting to the country.

  • ‘Johar’, which essentially means ‘salutation and welcome’, is used within the tribal communities of Jharkhand, and in parts of Chhattisgarh and Odisha.
  • According to several tribal leaders from Jharkhand, the word ‘Johar’ also means ‘paying respect’.
  • Tribal communities are nature worshippers and follow Sarna religion code, although it is not an official religion.
  • There are 32 tribal communities in Jharkhand who speak different dialects. Almost all, including tribal Christians, use the word ‘Johar’ along with some other words for salutation.
  • Johar, is predominantly used by Santhali, Munda and Ho communities that share some similarities. People belonging to the Oraon community use the word ‘Jai Dharam’, apart from Johar, as a salutation.

White Onion Gets GI Tag:

Alibagh (Maharastra) is known for growing white onion using the traditional method and utilizing geo-climatic conditions for a unique taste, flavour and shape.

  • A GI is primarily an agricultural, natural or manufactured product (handicrafts and industrial goods) originating from a definite geographical territory.
  • Typically, such a name conveys an assurance of quality and distinctiveness, which is essentially attributable to the place of its origin.
  • The registration of a geographical indication is valid for a period of 10 years.
  • It can be renewed from time to time for a further period of 10 years each.

Delimitation In Four North-East States:

Supreme Court issues notice on the plea seeking delimitation in Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur.

  • As per section 8A of RPA 1950, President can order delimitation exercises in these four states.
  • However, no such exercise has taken place in these four states in the last 51 years due to various concerns.
  • Previous order for delimitation (in 2020) was limited to J&K only.
  • Delimitation literally means the process of fixing limits or boundaries of territorial constituencies in a state that has a legislative body.
  • Delimitation commission orders have the force of law and they cannot be challenged before any court.
  • According to the Delimitation Commission Act, 2002, the Delimitation Commission will have three members: a serving or retired judge of the Supreme Court as the chairperson, and the Chief Election Commissioner or Election Commissioner nominated by the CEC and the State Election Commissioner as ex-officio members.
  • Under Article 82, the Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act after every Census.
  • Under Article 170, States also get divided into territorial constituencies as per the Delimitation Act after every Census.

Family Courts Amendment Bill, 2022:

The Lok Sabha passed the Family Courts’ Amendment Bill, 2022 by voice vote.

  • It validates the existence of the three family courts in Himachal Pradesh and Two in Nagaland with retrospective effect.
  • The bill also seeks validation of the decisions taken by the two states and the family courts.
  • The family courts located at Shimla, Dharmashala, and Mandi in Himachal Pradesh will come into force, with a retrospective effect of February 15th 2019.
  • The Family Courts located at Dimapur and Kohima in Nagaland will come into force with retrospect effect from November 12th 2008 on enactment of the Bill.
  • The enactment was necessitated as it came to light in connection with a case that the central Government notifications were not existing with respect to these five family courts.

Har Ghar Tiranga Campaign:

Spending on ‘Har Ghar Tiranga’ campaign declared CSR activity under Companies Act.

  • Corporate Affairs Ministry has said that companies can spend their Corporate Social Responsibility CSR funds for activities related to the Har Ghar Tiranga campaign.
  • The Ministry said spending of CSR funds for the activities related to this campaign such as mass scale production and supply of the national flag, outreach and amplification efforts and other related activities are eligible CSR activities under Schedule VII of the Companies Act pertaining to promotion of education relating to culture.
  • Under the Companies Act, 2013, certain class of profitable companies are required to shell out at least two per cent of their three-year annual average net profit towards CSR activities.
  • Har Ghar Tiranga campaign is being organised by the Government as part of the Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav to encourage people to bring home the national flag and hoist it to mark the 75th year of India’s independence.

Suspending An MP:

Nineteen opposition members were suspended from Rajya Sabha for a week on July 26, provoking Trinamool Congress leader Derek O’Brien to say that the government had turned Parliament into a “deep, dark chamber”.

  • The general principle is that it is the role and duty of the Presiding Officer — Speaker of Lok Sabha and Chairman of Rajya Sabha — to maintain order so that the House can function smoothly.
  • In order to ensure that proceedings are conducted in the proper manner, the Speaker/ Chairman is empowered to force a Member to withdraw from the House.
  • The Chairman of Rajya Sabha is empowered under Rule Number 255 of its Rule Book to “direct any Member whose conduct is in his opinion grossly disorderly to withdraw immediately” from the House.
  • Under Rule 256, the Chairman may “name a Member who disregards the authority of the Chair or abuses the rules of the Council by persistently and wilfully obstructing” business.
  • In such a situation, the House may adopt a motion suspending the Member from the service of the House for a period not exceeding the remainder of the session.
  • The House may, by another motion, terminate the suspension.

Swadesh Darshan Scheme:

The Ministry of Tourism has revamped its Swadesh Darshan scheme as Swadesh Darshan 2.0 (SD2.0) with an aim to develop sustainable and responsible infrastructure at destinations.

  • Swadesh Darshan Scheme was launched in 2014-15 for integrated development of theme-based tourist circuits — Buddhist Circuit, Coastal Circuit, Desert Circuit, Eco Circuit, Heritage Circuit, Northeast Circuit, Himalayan Circuit, Sufi Circuit, Krishna Circuit, Ramayana Circuit, Rural Circuit, Spiritual Circuit, Tirthankar Circuit, Wildlife Circuit and Tribal Circuit.
  • It is 100% centrally funded and efforts are made to achieve convergence with other schemes of Central and State Governments and also to leverage the voluntary funding available for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives of Central Public Sector Undertakings and Corporate Sector.
  • Under the schemes of Swadesh Darshan and PRASAD (Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive), the Ministry of Tourism provides financial assistance to states and Union Territories for the development of tourism infrastructure.
  • The projects under this scheme are sanctioned subject to availability of funds, submission of detailed project reports, adherence to scheme guidelines and utilisation of funds released previously.
  • Objectives:
    • To position tourism as a major engine of economic growth and job creation;
    • Develop circuits having tourist potential in a planned and prioritized manner;
    • Promote cultural and heritage value of the country to generate livelihoods in the identified regions;
    • Enhancing the tourist attractiveness in a sustainable manner by developing world class infrastructure in the circuit/destinations;
    • Follow community-based development and pro-poor tourism approach;
    • Creating awareness among the local communities about the importance of tourism for them in terms of increased sources of income, improved living standards and overall development of the area.
    • To make full use of the potential and advantages in terms of available infrastructure, national culture and characteristic strong points of each and every region throughout the country by development of theme-based circuits.
    • Development of tourist facilitation services to enhance visitor experience/satisfaction.

MIST Submarine Cable System:

The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change recommended MIST (Myanmar/Malaysia-India-Singapore Transit) Submarine Cable System for Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) clearance.

  • This will be the 17th such Optical Fibre Cable System to land in Mumbai and is expected to be ready for service in 2023
  • MIST is an international submarine cable communication network, traversing the undersea to connect India with other Asian countries such as Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.
  • It is an 8,100km-long undersea transnational fibre optic cable system connecting Mumbai to Singapore, via Chennai.
  • The cable system will terminate in Mumbai at Versova beach.
  • Of the total length of the international undersea cable system, 523.50 km will be laid along the Tamil Nadu coastal waters about 12 nautical miles offshore and about 202.06 km in the CRZ boundary of Maharashtra.
  • MIST cable system will provide secure, reliable, robust and affordable telecom facilities in Asia.
  • It will boost telecom connectivity between India and other Asian countries, namely Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.
  • This is a project of immense importance to global communications and will have a minimal footprint on Mumbai’s coastal environment.
  • It would also help avoid conflict with various stakeholders considering the increasing number of international cable landing on the Chennai coast.

International Space Station:

Russia will pull out of the International Space Station after 2024 and focus on building its own orbiting outpost, the country’s new space chief Yuri Borisov said amid high tensions between Moscow and the West over the fighting in Ukraine.

  • Borisov’s statement reaffirmed previous declarations by Russian space officials about Moscow’s intention to leave the space station after 2024 when the current international arrangements for its operation end.
  • NASA and other international partners hope to keep the space station running until 2030, while the Russians have been reluctant to make commitments beyond 2024.
  • The space station is jointly run by the space agencies of Russia, the U.S., Europe, Japan and Canada.
  • The first piece was put in orbit in 1998, and the outpost has been continuously inhabited for nearly 22 years.
  • It is used to conduct scientific research in zero gravity and test out equipment for future space journeys.
  • It typically has a crew of seven, who spend months at a time aboard the station as it orbits about 400 km from Earth.

Suryamitra Skill Development Programme:

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is implementing Suryamitra Skill Development Programme through National Institute of Solar Energy, Gurugram since Financial Year 2015-16.

  • Objective is to train youth of age above 18 years as solar PV technicians for installation, operation and maintenance of solar power projects.
  • Up to June 2022, a total of 51331 number of candidates have benefited from the skill development training provided under Suryamitra programme, out of which 26967 number of candidates gained employment.
  • This information was given by Shri Bhagwanth Khuba, Minister of State for New and Renewable Energy in a written reply in Rajya Sabha.

India Has Added Five More Ramsar Sites:

India has added five more Ramsar sites, or wetlands of international importance, bringing the number of such sites to 54.

New Ramsar Sites:

Karikili Bird Sanctuary (Tamil Nadu):

  • The sanctuary is spread over a five-kilometre-wide belt and is home to cormorants, egrets, grey heron, open-billed stork, darter, spoonbill, white lbnis, night herons, grebes, grey pelican among others.

Pallikaranai Marsh Reserve Forest (Tamil Nadu):

  • One of the last remaining natural wetlands, the marsh drains in an area of 250 square kilometres encompassing 65 wetlands.
  • The Pallikaranai Marsh is one of the few natural coastal aquatic habitats that qualify as a wetland in India.

Pichavaram Mangrove (Tamil Nadu):

  • One of the last mangrove forests in the country.
  • It has an island of a vast expanse of water covered with mangrove forests.

Sakhya Sagar (Madhya Pradesh):

  • Created from the Manier river in 1918, Sakhya Sagar is located near Madhav National Park.

Pala Wetland in Mizoram (Mizoram):

  • It is home to a wide range of animals, birds, and reptiles.
  • Its geographical location falls under the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot and is therefore rich in animal and plant species.
  • The lake is a major component of the Palak Wildlife Sanctuary and it supports the major biodiversity of the sanctuary.

Ramsar site :

  • It is a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention, which is also known as the ‘Convention on Wetlands’ — an intergovernmental environmental treaty established by UNESCO in 1971, and named after the city of Ramsar in Iran, where the convention was signed that year.
  • Ramsar recognition is the identification of wetlands around the world, which are of international importance, especially if they provide habitat to waterfowl (about 180 species of birds).
  • There is international interest and cooperation in the conservation of such wetlands and a judicious use of their resources.
  • Sundarbans in West Bengal is the largest Ramsar site in India.

Draft Medical Devices Bill:

The Union Health Ministry released a draft of the proposed Drugs Medical Devices and Cosmetics Bill, 2022 which would replace the existing Drugs and Cosmetics Act,1940, and other several rules.

  • It focuses on creating a separate regulation for medical devices, which makes provision for fines and imprisonment for injury and death related to clinical trials or investigations and seeks to regulate e-pharmacies.
  • The medical device industry is a unique blend of engineering and medicine. It involves the creation of machines that are used to support life within the human body.
  • Medical devices include Surgical Equipment, Diagnostic equipment like Cardiac imaging, CT scans, X-ray, Molecular Imaging, MRI and Ultrasound-imaging including hand – held devices, Life Support equipment like ventilator, etc. as well as Implants and Disposables.

Highlights of the Draft Bill:

  • Provisions for the Clinical Trials and Investigations:
    • Compensation to Heir: It makes provisions for compensation to participants or their legal heirs for injury or death suffered in clinical trials and investigations for drugs and medical devices.
    • The draft also lays the onus on providing medical management for any injury arising due to the trial of the investigators.
    • Penalty & Fines: Provision for imprisonment, and fines amounting to double the compensation amount if the compensation is not paid.
    • Prohibition of Clinical Trials: It prohibits clinical trials or clinical investigations of drugs and medical devices without permission from the central licensing authority.
    • It provides for debarring the investigators and sponsors of a trial or investigation if the laid-down provisions are not followed.
    • Medical Devices Technical Advisory Board: The draft bill provides for the creation of a Medical Devices Technical Advisory Board on the lines of the existing drugs technical advisory board, with people who have technical knowledge of the engineering of these devices, and members of the industry.
    • Other than officials of the Health Ministry, the board will have officials from the Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Defense Research and Development Organization, and experts from the fields of Biomedical Technology, Biomaterials, and Polymer Technology.

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