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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC IAS: 5th March 2022

Today Current Affairs: 5th March 2022 for UPSC IAS exams, State PSC exams, SSC CGL, State SSC, RRB, Railways, Banking Exam & IBPS, etc

 

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB):

The Beijing-based Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) said it was putting on hold and reviewing all projects in Russia and Belarus.

  • The move comes amid sweeping sanctions and other financial measures aimed at Russia from a number of countries over its invasion of Ukraine.
  • AIIB is a multilateral development bank that aims to improve economic and social outcomes in Asia. AIIB is headquartered in Beijing, China.
  • Established In January 16, 2016.
  • AIIB has 105 members. China is the AIIB’s largest shareholder with a 26.5% voting share. India is the second-largest, with 7.5%, followed by Russia, which has a 5.97% voting share. Belarus is also a member.
  • All powers of the Bank are vested in our Board of Governors, which is the highest decision-making body under its Articles of Agreement.
  • The bank is headed by China’s Jin Liqun. Former Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Governor Urjit Patel is a Vice-President of the bank.

Swadesh Darshan Awards:

In order to acknowledge the efforts undertaken by the State Governments, Union Territory Administrations and various implementation agencies, the Ministry of Tourism has constituted Swadesh Darshan Awards in different categories.

  • The awards will highlight best practices in planning, design and operations, efficient project monitoring, ability to attract private investments in peripheral development and efforts undertaken to ensure optimal operations and maintenance etc.
  • To begin with, the Ministry of Tourism has decided to invite entries under the following categories:-
    • Best Tourist Interpretation Centre
    • Best Log Hut Facility
    • Best MICE Facility
    • Best Cafeteria
    • Best Craft Haat/ Souvenir Shop facility
    • Best Sound and Light Show
    • Best Waterfront Development (Beach/ River/ Lake etc.)
  • The Ministry of Tourism under its flagship scheme of ‘Swadesh Darshan’ has sanctioned 76 projects in 31 States / Union Territories of India for more than Rs.5500 Crore.
  • As part of this scheme, tourism related infrastructure has been developed at more than 500 tourist destinations.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU):

Ashwini Vaishnaw, Union Minister of Communications and Houlin Zhao, Secretary General of International Telecommunication Union (ITU) signed the Host Country Agreement (HCA) for the establishment of an Area Office & Innovation Centre of ITU in New Delhi on 3rd March 2022.

  • International Telecommunication Union is the United Nations specialised agency for information and communication technologies – ICTs.
  • ITU currently has a membership of 193 countries and over 900 private-sector entities and academic institutions.
  • The Area Office and Innovation Centre of ITU at New Delhi is expected to serve South Asian countries namely Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka and India.
  • The Host Country Agreement provides the legal and financial framework for establishment and operations of the Area Office.
  • The Area Office and the Innovation Centre is expected to be operational by mid 2022.
  • World Telecommunications Standardisation Assembly-20 (WTSA-20)
    • The agreement was signed in a virtual ceremony during the World Telecommunications Standardisation Assembly-20 (WTSA-20) being held in Geneva, Switzerland.
    • WTSA is a four-yearly global conference of ITU dedicated to standardisation of the Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs).
    • India has proposed to host the next WTSA to be held in 2024.

Defence Acquisition Procedure (DAP) 2020:

Ministry of Defence (MoD) has offered four projects to the Indian Industry for design & development under Make-I category of Defence Acquisition Procedure (DAP) 2020.

Make-I category

  • The industry will be provided financial support for prototype development of these projects.
  • The list of projects which were accorded ‘Approval In-Principle (AIP)’ by Collegiate Committee of MoD is as follow:
    • Indian Air Force: Communication Equipment with Indian Security Protocols (Routers, Switches, Encryptors, VoIP Phones and their software)
    • Indian Air Force: Airborne Electro Optical pod with Ground Based System
    • Indian Air Force: Airborne Stand-off Jammer
    • Indian Army: Indian Light Tank
  • This is for the first time since the launch of DAP-2020 that Indian Industry has been involved in development of big ticket platforms such as Light tank and Communication Equipment with Indian security protocols.

Make-II procedure

  • In addition, AIP has also been accorded to following five projects under industry-funded Make-II procedure:
    • Indian Air Force: Full Motion Simulator for Apache Helicopter
    • Indian Air Force: Full Motion Simulator for Chinook Helicopter
    • Indian Air Force: Wearable Robotic Equipment for Aircraft Maintenance
    • Indian Army: Integrated Surveillance and Targeting System for Mechanised Forces
    • Indian Army: Autonomous Combat Vehicle
  • Projects under ‘Make-II’ category involve prototype development of equipment or their upgrades or their components, primarily for import substitution/innovative solutions, for which no Government funding will be provided for prototype development purposes.

War Crimes:

Since Russia invaded Ukraine on February 24, its troops have increasingly hit civilian sites with airstrikes and artillery, raising concerns that war crimes are being committed.

  • The International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague announced that it would open an investigation into possible war crimes or crimes against humanity in Ukraine.
  • There are specific international standards for war crimes, which are not to be confused with crimes against humanity.
  • War crimes are defined as serious violations of humanitarian laws during a conflict.
  • The definition, established by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) is derived from the 1949 Geneva Conventions and is based on the idea that individuals can be held liable for the actions of a state or its military.
  • The UN Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect separates war crimes from genocide and crimes against humanity.
  • War crimes are defined as occurring in a domestic conflict or a war between two states, while genocide and crimes against humanity can happen in peacetime or during the unilateral aggression of a military towards a group of unarmed people.
  • There is a long list of acts that can be considered war crimes.
  • The taking of hostages, wilful killings, torture or inhuman treatment of prisoners of war, and forcing children to fight are some of the more obvious examples.
  • To decide whether an individual or a military has committed a war crime, international humanitarian law lays down three principles: distinction, proportionality and precaution.
  • Proportionality prohibits armies from responding to an attack with excessive violence.
  • Precaution requires parties to a conflict to avoid or minimize the harm done to the civilian population.
  • the principle of distinction says that you have to be constantly trying to distinguish between civilian and belligerent populations and objects.

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