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Light Emitting Diodes (LED)

Light Emitting Diodes (LED):

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences made a statement declaring that while incandescent light bulbs illuminated the 20th century, the 21st century would be illuminated by LED lamps.

  • A diode is an electronic component about 5 mm wide. It has two points of contact, or terminals, called its anode and cathode.
  • A diode’s primary purpose is to allow current to flow in only one direction.
  • It achieves this using a P-N Junction Diode.
  • The P-N junction occurs at the interface of p-type and n-type semiconductors.
  • The positive side of the semiconductor, known as the p-side, possesses an abundance of holes.
  • The negative side of the semiconductor, referred to as the n-side, contains an excess of electrons.
  • Electrons are ‘places’ inside atoms that carry negative charge.

Light Emitting Diodes (LED):

  • LEDs are semiconductors that can emit light when an electric current passes through them.
  • Inside the diode’s p-n junction, the electrons have more energy than the holes.
  • When an electron meets and occupies a hole, it releases energy into its surroundings.
  • The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2014 was granted to Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura.
  • Their achievement was recognized for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes, a breakthrough that paved the way for the creation of bright and energy-efficient white light sources.
  • Red and green diodes existed for a while, but the lack of blue light prevented the creation of white lamps.