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Type-1 Diabetes

Type-1 Diabetes:

In June 2022, the Indian Council of Medical Research (IMCR) released guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and management for type-1 diabetes. This is the first time the ICMR has issued guidelines specifically for type 1 diabetes, which is rarer than type 2.

  • Type 1 diabetes is a condition where the pancreas completely stops producing insulin, the hormone responsible for controlling the level of glucose in blood by increasing or decreasing absorption to the liver, fat, and other cells of the body.
  • This is unlike type 2 diabetes — where the body’s insulin production either goes down or the cells become resistant to the insulin.
  • Type 1 diabetes is predominantly diagnosed in children and adolescents.
  • Type 1 diabetes is much more severe than type 2. Unlike type 2 diabetes where the body produces some insulin and which can be managed using various pills, if a person with type 1 diabetes stops taking their insulin, they die within weeks as the body produces zero insulin.
  • Symptoms in children’s include frequent urination, extreme thirst, and diabetic ketoacidosis (a serious condition where the body has a high concentration of ketones, a molecule produced when the body isn’t able to absorb glucose for energy and starts breaking down fats instead).
  • There are over 10 lakh children and adolescents living with type 1 diabetes in the world, with India accounting for the highest numbers.